on-the-time.jp

2011年01月13日

ロシアのサンクトペテルブルグ鉄道はNFCチケット発行トライアルを拡大!

モバイル・マネー

Cellular-Newsは、米国のAmbiq Technology社の技術を基礎づけて、ロシアのサンクトペテルブルグ交通管理局(St. Petersburg Transportation Authority)はAmbiq社の独占NFCモバイル支払いプラットホームに基づく製品とサービスを含んでいるTechnology Cooperation Agreementにサインしたと報告した。

【広告】 クレオパトラは、ほとんど裸で生活していたと言われ、彼女は椰子油を全身に塗り、朝と晩にそれらを洗い流していたと言われている。つまり、椰子油の全身パックを毎日2回していたことになり、もしそれが事実なら彼女の肌は吸い付くようにつるつるで、ぷるるんとしていたことだろう。

Ambiq社は乗客が公共輸送機関に乗るためにチケットを買うのに携帯電話を使用することを可能にする完全版システムを開発し、2010年10月以来のペテルブルグ地下鉄(Petersburg Metro)でテストを受けている。

システムは安全要素としてNFC(Near Field Communication/短距離無線通信規格)デバイスを利用して、市のチケット・マネージメント・システムに既存のMetro回転式木戸入り口で取り組んで、輸送者を見分けて、接続する標準の携帯電話にインストールされる。
そのデバイスは、Ambiq社によって設計され、製造されている。

サンクトペテルブルグ交通管理局の副チェアーマンであるS.V.ポポフ(S.V. Popov)は、
「サンクトペテルブルグの乗客のためにチケット購入と交通機関における転送の代価を払う手順を簡素化するので、Ambiq Technology社によって提供された技術は、サンクトペテルブルグに興味があります。」
「私たちは、このソリューションを都市の市民と客の中で需要があるのを知っています。」と言っている。

サンクトペテルブルグには、ロシアで2番目に大きい都市であり、公共輸送に乗り手が毎日400万人居る。

サンクトペテルブルグにおける公共交通システムの展開は、ユニークなハードウェア「Secure-Z」と共に、モバイル支払いインフラストラクチャを可能にする一部としてAmbiq社の統一されたサービス・プラットホームを実装することで最初になる。

サンクトペテルブルグでの、ユーティリティ支払いや、モバイル・バンキング、小売や他の消費者などの他のサービスを含むように、支払いは修正されている。

1703---St. Petersburg is founded.

House of Peter I is built.

Sea Port construction is started.

1704---Kronschlot Fort at the Finish Gulf is built.

Summer Garden is planned and laid out.

Admiralty Ship Yard is founded.

1705---Gostiny Dvor market and the (Austeria) Tavern in Trinity Square are built.

Construction of the Fortress on Kotlin Island begins.

1706---First warship, built at the Admiralty Shipyard, is launched.

Wooden and earthen buildings of Peter and Paul's Fortress are rebuilt in stone.

1707---Pontoon bridge over Great Okhta is built.

1708---t. Peter's Gates in wood, the first Arch de Triumph in the city, is built in the Peter-and-Paul's Fortress.

1709---Chancellery on Construction is instituted.

St. Sampson's Church in wood is founded at the Vyborgskaya Side, in memory of the victory at Poltava.

1710---Alexander Nevsky Monastery is founded.

Summer Palace of Peter I and Menshikov's Palace construction starts on Vasilievsky Island.

Peterschule, the first school in St. Petersburg, is founded.

1711---Nevsky Prospect is laid.

Armory (Canon Yard) is founded.

St. Petersburg 's first printing house is founded.

1712---Wedding ceremony of Peter I and Martha Skavronsky (Catherine I) at the Trinity Cathedral.

Capital of Russia is moved from Moscow to St. Petersburg.

Peter and Paul's Cathedral construction in stone begins.

1713---Arrangements for the "Aptekarsky Garden" (now Botanical Gardens) have begun.

The first brick factories at Okhta starts production.

1714---Peter I issues the Decree on prohibiting any construction in stone all over Russia except St. Petersburg.

Fountains and the Mon Plaisir Palace construction in Peterhof begins.

Kunstkammer, the first public museum in Russia, is opened.

1715---Okhta Gunpowder Mill is built.

Navigation School ( Naval Academy) is moved from Moscow to St. Petersburg.

1716---Theater of Czarina Natalia Alexeevna is opened.

Amber Room is presented to Peter I by Wilhelm I, King of Prussia.

1717---Architect Jean Batiste Leblon works out the general plan of Saint Petersburg.

Building of The Church of Annunciation in Alexander Nevsky Monastery begins.

1718---Tsarevich Alexey is executed in the Peter and Paul's Fortress.

Ladozhsky Canal is laid.

The First "Assambleya" is held

1719---Marine Hospital construction on the Vyborgskaya Side begins.

Tsarevich Peter, heir to the throne, dies.

1720---Okhta Admiralty is founded.

The first Sugar Factory in Russia starts manufacturing on the Vyborgskaya Side.

1721---Celebration of the victorious Neustadt Peace Treaty with Sweden.

Senate declares Peter I Emperor.

Ligovsky Canal construction is completed.

Galernaya Harbour and Sestroretsk Arms plant construction begins.

1722---The first coat -of -arms of St. Petersburgis is designed.

Construction of the Twelve Collegia building starts up.

1723---Imperial Guards are moved to St. Petersburg from Moscow.

Peterhof Great Cascade Fountains are turned on water.

Gostiny Dvor Market in stone is built on Vasilievsky Island.

1724---Establishment of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences with a university and a grammar school.

The remains of St. Alexander Nevsky are interred in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.

The first meteorological station in Russia is founded.

1725---Death of Peter the Great, accession of Catherine I to the throne.

Population of St. Petersburg is about 40,000.

1726---Supreme Secret Investigation Council is formed.

St. Petersburg Library of the Academy of Sciences is founded.

1727---Decease of Catherine I, accession of Peter II to the throne.

The first pontoon bridge over the Bolshaya Neva River is constructed.

Alexander Menshikov is taken under arrest and sent into exile to Siberia.

1728---Imperial Court is moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow.

The first edition of "The St. Petersburg Vedomosty" is issued.

St. Peter's Lutheran Church construction is started.

1729---Peter-and-Paul's Fortress reconstruction supervised by Buckhard-Christoph Munnich is resumed. "People Unwarrantedly Leaving St. Petersburg" decree is signed

1730---Decease of Peter II.

Anna Ioannovna becomes Empress of Russia.

Artillery School is instituted.

1731---Navigation on the Ladozhky Canal is opened.

Simeon and Anna's Church construction begins.

1732---Anna Ioannovna's Court moves back to St. Petersburg from Moscow.

Land Gentry Corps, (later, the First Military Cadet Corps) is opened.

Main Apothecary building is constructed.

1733---Peter and Paul's Cathedral is completed.

Sea Port and Customs is moved from Trinity Square to the Spit of Vasilievsky Island.

1734---Kunstkammer building is completed.

J.-B. Lande, dancing-master, comes to St. Petersburg.

1735---St. Panteleymon's Church construction begins.

The first opera in Russia, "Power of Love and Hate", is staged by Francesco Arayi at the New Imperial Theater.

1736---Annenschule of St. Anna's Lutheran Church is founded.

Potato is planted in the Botanical Gardens for the first time in Russia.

Fire in the Admiralty District of the city.

1737---Disastrous fire destroys more than one thousand buildings of the Admiralty District.

Committee on St. Petersburg Structure is formed.

Area of St. Petersburg is subdivided into five city- and four suburban districts.

1738---dmiralty reconstruction is completed (architect Ivan Korobov).

St. Petersburg streets are given their first official names.

Dance School supervised by J.-B. Lande (now The Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet) is opened.

1739---Planning and Construction Design of St. Petersburg Left-Bank Part is approved.

Construction of settlements for the Guards Corps begins.

1740---Lowest temperature -45?C is registered.

Buffoonery Masquerade and Wedding at the Ice House.

Execution of Artemy Volynsky, Andrei Khruschev and Peter Eropkin.

Death of Anna Ioannovna.

Ivan VI Antonovich, two months old, is declared Emperor.

Duke Biron is taken under arrest and exiled.

Peter and Paul's Fortress reconstruction is finished.

1741---Mikhail Lomonosov comes back to St. Petersburg after his education in Europe.

Annichkov Palace construction begins.

Arrest of Anna Leopoldovna and her family members.

Empress Elizaveta Petrovna ascends to the throne of Russia.

1742---Burchhard-Christoph Munnich and A. I. Osterman are exiled to Siberia.

Duke Golschtein-Gottorpsky (future Peter III), appointed as heir to the throne, arrives in St. Petersburg.

Twelve Collegia building is completed.

1743---Trunsfiguration Cathedral of "all the Guards" construction under design of Zemtsov and Pietro-Antonio Trezzini begins.

Nierenbach's German Theater is opened.

1744---Nevskaya Porcelain Manufacture (now Lomonosov Porcelain Factory) is founded.

Summer Palace of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna is constructed.

1745---Reconstruction of Great Palace in Peterhof (architect Francesco-Bartholomew Rastrelli) begins.

1746---Monument to Peter I is moulded in bronze by Carlo-Bartholomeo Rastrelli.

Dmitry Vinogradov, Master of the Nevskaya Porcelain Manufacture, makes the first Russian porcelain sample.

1747---Fire at the Kunstkammer annihilates the Gottorpsky Globe.

1748---The first Russian Scientific Chemical Laboratory is established.

Building of the Resurrection Novodevichy Nunnery (Smolny) is founded.

1749---Vorontsov's Palace construction begins.

The first strike in St. Petersburg at Efim Bolotin's Cloth Factory.

1750---Sheremetev's Palace construction ( Fountain Mansion) begins.

City population is about 95,000

1751---Tour of Hilferding's German Theater.

Merchants and their families are permitted to attend theater performances.

1752---The Naval Cadet Corps is opened.

Fedor Volkov's Yaroslavl Theater moves to St. Petersburg.

Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo is rebuilt under the design of Francesco-Bartholomeo Rastrelli.

1753---Stroganov's Palace is completed.

St. Nicholas' Naval Cathedral and Ivan Shuvalov's Palace construction begins.

1754---Winter Palace construction designed by Francesco-Bartholomeo Rastrelli begins.

Construction of Annichkov Palace and the Transfiguration Cathedral is finished.

Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich, the future Emperor Paul I, is born.

1755---Amber Room design in Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo is finished.

St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences publishes "Monthly Compositions for Use And Entertainment" magazine.

1756---Fire destroys Peter and Paul's Fortress Bell-Tower and its chime of bells.

Catherine Palace reconstruction in Tsarskoye Selo is accomplished.

1757---The Academy of Fine Arts is founded.

1758---Tuchkov Bridge over the Malaya Neva River is constructed.

The first volume of "Collected Works" by Mikhail Lomonosov is published.

1759---Corps of Pages is founded.

Opening of the first haberdashery factory in Russia.

1760---Construction of the Church of Our Lady of Vladimir.

1761---Huge fire in Meschanskije Streets.

Empress Elizaveta Petrovna dies, Peter III ascends to the throne.

1762---Coup d'etat: Peter III is overthrown, Catherine II ascends to the throne.

Winter Palace and St. Nocholas Naval Cathedral completed.

National Bank is established.

1763---St. Catherine Polish Roman-Catholic Church and ware-houses in Tuchkov Bujan are constructed.

Medical Collegium is established.

1764---Ivan Antonovich is assassinated in the Schlisselburg Fortress.

Vasiliy Mirovich is executed.

The first Russian educational institution for women, Smolny Institute for Noble Girls, is established.

Michael Lomonosov finishes his mosaic panel "The Battle of Poltava "

Catherine II purchases the art collection from I.E. Gotskovsky, it marks the begining of the Hermitage.

1765---Free Economic Society, the first scientific society in Russia, is formed.

The building of Alexander Institute and ware-houses on the Novaya Gollandija (New Holland) Island are under construction.

1766---Razumovsky's Palace completed.

Gatchina Palace construction begins.

Etienne-Moris Falconet, sculptor, comes to St. Petersburg.

1767---"Mandate" of Catherine II is published.

Committee starts to work on a draft of the new Code.

Dvortsovaya Embankment is clad in granite.

1768---Chinese Palace in Oranienbaum completed.

Marble Palace construction begins.

Catherine II is inoculated against smallpox.

Assignation Bank is founded.

1769---Obvodny Canal is being laid.

Order of St. George the Triumphant is instituted

1770---Foundling Home for Illegitimate and Abandoned children is opened.

English Assembly is founded.

1771---St. Catherine Lutheran Church on Vasilievsky I sland completed.

The first Maternity Hospital in St Petersburg is opened at the Foundling Home.

Great (Old) Hermitage construction begins.

1772---The first musical society in Russia, the Music Club, is opened.

Marble landmarks are set along the way to Tsarskoye Selo.

1773---Mining School of the Berg-Collegium is founded (now Mining College).

"Society Thriving for Book Printing" is founded, run by Nicholas Novikov.

Denis Diderot comes to St. Petersburg.

1774---Kataljnaya Gorka in Oranienbaum completed.

Chesme Palace construction begins.

1775---Elizaveta Tarakanova dies in Peter and Paul's Fortress.

Alexander Institute and Small Hermitage completed.

1776---Chesme Column in Tsarskoye Selo is erected.

Construction of Kamennoostrovsky Palace and Trinity Cathedral in Alexander Nevsky Monastery begins.

1777---One of the most disastrous floods ( 310 centimeters above the ordinary level).

Chesme Palace completed.

Cladding Factory is founded in Peterhof.

Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich (future Emperor Alexander I) is born.

1778---Nativity of John the Forerunner Church on Vasilievsky Island completed.

Catherine II purchases Voltaire's library.

1779---St Anna Lutheran Church in Kirochnaya Street completed.

"Historical, Geographical, And Topographical Description of St. Petersburg" by A.I. Bogdanov is published.

1780---St. Catherine Armenian Church in Nevsky Prospect, Chesme Church, Alexander Cathedral and New Holland are completed.

Obukhovskaya Hospital is is opened.

The coat -of -arms of St. Petersburg is officially approved.

Fontanka Embankments are clad in granite.

1781---Construction of St. Ilia-the-Prophet Church of the Okhta Powder Mill and the English Palace in Peterhof begins.

Complete "Works by A.P. Sumarokov" is published.

1782---"Bronze Horseman", a monument to Peter I, is unveiled in Senate Square.

St. Catherine Polish Roman-Catholic Church in Nevsky Prospect and the Kamennoostrovsky Palace are completed.

Construction of Paul's Palace, Sophia Cathedral in Tsarskoye Selo and the building of the General Post Office begins.

First night of Denis Fonvisin's "Ignoramus" at Karl Knipper's Theater on Tsaritsyn Lug (Czarina's Meadow).

1783---Bolshoi Theater is opened.

Russian Academy is established.

Taurida Garden is planned and laid out.

1784---Nevsky Grill of the Summer Garden completed.

City population is 192,000.

1785---Grand Gostiny Dvor Market in Nevsky Prospect, the Marble Palace and the Church of Ilia the Prophet -in -Porokhovykh are completed.

The first Russian magazine for children, "Children Readings for Heart and Mind" is published.

1786---Navigation School for Merchandizing Seafaring is founded.

Paul's Palace completed.

1787---Construction of City Duma, Neva Gate in Peter-and-Paul's Fortress, Camerron Gallery in Tsarskoye Selo, Grand (Old) Hermitage and the Hermitage Theater is completed.

1788---Academy of Fine Arts , Sophia Cathedral in Tsarskoye Selo and English Embankment completed.

1789---Taurida Palace, the building of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, the General Post-Office, and Nikolsky Market completed.

"Mail of Spirits" magazine of Ivan Krylov is published.

1790---Alexander Radischev is arrested and exiled for the publication of "Travel from St. Petersburg to Moscow".

Construction of the Trinity Church in Alexander Nevsky Monastery, the Assignation Bank, and the Andreevsky Market is completed.

1791---Grand celebration given in Taurida Palace in honour of Izmail Fortress captured.

1792---The first Russian medical magazine "St. Petersburg Vrachebny Vedomosty" is published.

The first Russian playwright Denis Fonvizin dies.

Alexander Palace construction in Tsarkoye Selo begins.

1793---Order on prohibiting import of newspapers, magazines, and other editions from France is issued.

Ivan Krylov's magazine "St. Petersburg Mercury" publications starts.

1794---St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences publishes the first edition of the first Dictionary of the Russian Language.

"Description of Russian Imperial Capital City of St. Petersburg and Memorable Places in Its Suburbs" by Johann Georgy is published.

1795---Imperial Public Library is founded.

Nicholas Karamzin edits the first Russian almanach "Aonides".

1796---Anglisky (English) Palace construction in Peterhof and Alexander Palace in Tsarskoye Selo completed.

Death of Cathrine II, ascendance of Paul I to the throne.

1797---Michailovsky Castle construction begins

1798---Paul I accepts the title of St. John of Jerusalem Grossmeister Order (Order of Malta).

Medical and Surgery Academy if founded.

Publication of "Compositions" by Gavriil Derzhavin.

1799---Russian-American Company is established.

Alexander's Manufacture, the first mechanical paper mill in Russia, is founded.

Rumiantsev Obelisk in Czarina's Meadow is erected.

Prioratsky Palace in Gatchina completed.

Construction of the Mint Yard in Peter-and-Paul's Fortress begins.

1800---Decree on prohibiting import of foreign books to Russia.

Alexander Suvorov dies.

Michailovsky Castle construction and Maltiyskaya Chapel completed.

Monument to Peter I is unveiled in front of Michailovsky Castle.

St. Petersburg population is 220,000.

1801---Paul I is assassinated in Michailovsky Castle.

Alexander I ascends to the Russian throne.

Imperial Public Library construction completed.

Monument to Alexander Suvorov is unveiled in Czarina's Meadow.

State Iron Plant is founded (now Kirovsky Plant)

1802---Philharmonic Society is founded.

"Herald of Europe" magazine starts up.

Alexander Radischev commits suicide.

1803---Festivity of 100th anniversary of St. Petersburg.

Ivan Krusenstern starts the first Russian round-world see voyage.

Construction of Medical and Surgery Academy completed.

First successful air balloon flight.

1804---Pedagogical Institute is established.

State Duma Tower is erected in Nevsky Prospect.

1805---St. Petersburg Regional Gymnasium (Public School) (later on, Second Gymnasium) opened.

St. Petersburg 's first steam engine is installed at the Alexandrovsky Cotton Mill.

Maryinsky Hospital in Liteiny Prospect opened.

1806---Rostral Columns are erected on Vassilievsky Island.

Regular rowing-boat navigation opens between St. Petersburg and Kronstadt.

Politseisky Bridge (now, Green Bridge) is built across the Moika River.

1807---Construction of the Horse Guards Manege and Catherine's Institute are completed.

1808---Pavel Palkin's'tavern' is opened in Nevsky Prospect.

Construction of the Smolny Institute building is completed.

1809---Ecclesiastical Academy and Theological Seminary are opened.

Laval 's Palace is built.

The first volume of Fables by Ivan Krylov is published.

1810---Construction of the Stock Exchange building is completed on / Vasilievsky Island.

State Council is formed and inaugurated.

Institute of the Corps of Communication Engineers (now, Railway Engineering University) is opened.

1811---Bolshoi Theatre is on fire.

Construction of the buildings of Kazansky Cathedral /'the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan'/ and of the Mining Institute is completed.

A literary society, Beseda Liubitelei Russkogo Slova /' Conference of Russian Literature Admirers'/, is formed.

Lyceum is opened in Tsarskoe Selo.

1812---Napoleon invades Russia, the Patriotic War begins.

St. Petersburg irregularl troops are formed.

Russian Bible Society is founded.

The first issue of the Syn Otechestva /'Son of Fatherland'/ Journal is printed.

1813---Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov is entombed in Kazansky Cathedral..

Philharmonic Society gives its first charity concert for the benefit of the Patriotic War invalids.

Museum of the Institute of the Corps of Communication Engineers is founded.

1814---Imperial Public Library is opened for visitors.

Victorious peace treaty with France is celebrated by a grand salute (324 volleys).

Return of St. Petersburg irregulars and Imperial Guards from their foreign campaign.

Poems by Alexander Pushkin are published for the first time.

1815---Arzamas Literary Society is formed.

The first Russian steamer Elizabeth makes its maiden voyage to Kronstadt.

1816---Nikolai Karamzin publishes his first volume of "History of the State of Russia".

The first conspiratorial society of the Decembrists, Soyuz Spaseniya /'League for Salvation'/, is formed.

Free Society of the Amatuers of Russian Literature is organized.

Potseluev Bridge across the Moika River is built.

1817---State Commercial Bank is founded.

Construction of the highway between St. Petersburg and Moscow begins.

First pavements are laid with stone.

1818---Construction of the Yelagin Island architectural ensemble begins.

St. Petersburg Board of Soyuz Blagodenstviya /' League for Prosperity'/ is formed.

Department for the Production of State Notes (now - the Goznak factory) is set up.

1819---Barracks for the Lifeguards Pavlovsky Regiment are built in Marsovo Polye /'the Field of Mars'/.

St. Petersburg University revived.

Central Engineering College (later on, Nicholas's Engineering Academy) is set up.

Construction of Mikhailovsky Palace begins.

Ground Breaking Ceremony of St. Isaac's Cathedral, designed by Auguste R. Montferrand

1820---Soldiers from the Lifeguards Semyonovsky Regiment revolted.

Artillery College (later - Michael's Academy of Artillery) is formed.

Lobanov-Rostotsky's House is built.

1821---Decembrists' Northern Society' is formed.

Society for the Encouragement of Artists (later -Art Promotion Society) is set up.

1822---Russia 's first specially equipped circus building is constructed in Krestovsky Island.

Yelagin Island architectural ensemble is completed.

1823---Admiralty Building is reconstructed according to the design of Andryan Zakharov.

Kondraty Ryleev and Alexander Bestuzhev publish the first issue of their Polyarnaya Zvezda /' Polar Star'/ Almanac.

1824---Russia 's first optical (semaphore) telegraph is constructed between St. Petersburg and Schlisselburgh.

Alexander Griboedov arrives in St.Peterburg with the manuscript of his comedy "Woe From Wit".

City has the worst flood in its history (410cm above the ordinary level).

1825---Faddey Bulgarin and Nikolai Grech started " Severnaya Pchela" /'Northern Bee'/ Newspaper.

The first chapter of Pushkin's "Eugene Onegin" is published.

Alexander I dies.

Interregnum.

Nicholas I ascends to the Russian throne.

Decembrists' Revolt.

1826---Anton de Rossi finishes his model of St. Petersburg.

Nikolai Karamzin dies.

Third <Secret> Department and Gendarme Corps are formed.

Decembrists' leaders are hanged at the crownwork of the Fortress of Peter-and-Paul.

Alexander's Iron Foundry (now known as the Proletarski Zavod Industrial Amalgamation) commences its production at Nevskaya Zastava.

1827---War Gallery is solemnly opened in the Winter Palace.

Kamennostrovsky /' Stone Island'/ Theatre is built.

Foundation stone of the new Preobrazhensky /'Transfiguration'/ Cathedral designed by Vassily Stasov is laid down.

Evgeni Baratynsky publishes his first book of poetry.

1828---St. Petersburg Practical Institute (later, Technological Institute) is founded.

Construction of the Troitsky /'Holy Trinity'/ Cathedral of the Lifeguards Izmailovsky Regiment begins.

Bolshoi Koniushenny bridge is built across the Moika River.

1829---Building of the Genshtab /'General Staff Headquarters'/, designed by Carlo Rossi, is completed

. St. Mary Magdalene's Hospital is opened on St. Basil's Island.

1830---The first masquerade is given in Engelgardt's house in Nevsky Prospect.

Anton Delvig begins to publish his "Literary Gazette".

1831---Cholera Mutiny begins in Senate Square.

Rumyantsev Museum is is opened for visitors.

A three-arch bridge is built across the Ekaterininsky Canal and the Moika River.

1832---Alexander's Column is erected in Palace Square.

Alexandrinsky /'Alexandra's/ Theatre is is opened.

A devastating fire started in the Moskovski and Karetny City Districts.

The Civil Engineering College and the Military Academy (later - Nicholas' Academy of the General Staff Headquarters) are formed.

1833---The Obvodny /'Circular'/ Canal is opened for navigation.

Construction of the high way between St. Petersburg and Moscow is completed.

Mikhailovsky Theatre (now, Musorgsky Theatre of Opera and Ballet) is opened.

Spa Arrangement Society is formed.

Publication of the new Code of Laws of the Russian Empire begins.

1834---Buildings of Senate and Synod, the architectural ensemble of the Alexandrinsky Theatre, the Dutch Church in Nevsky Prospect and the pier near the Academy of Fine Arts are completed.

Narvskye Vorota Arch and Alexander's column are unveiled.

Nicholas' Hospital for Children is opened.

Ossip Senkovsky publishes first issue of his "Biblioteka dlya Chteniya" ("Books Readable") Journal.

1835---Smolny Cathedral is consecrated.

Hospital of St. Peter-and-Paul is opened.

Archeographic Committee at the Ministry of Public Education is formed.

College of Law is opened.

1836---Nikolai Gogol's comedy, "Inspector General", is staged at the Alexandrinsky Theatre.

First night of Mihail Glinka's opera, "Life for the Tsar" ("Ivan Susanin"), at the Bolshoi Theatre.

Alexander Pushkin publishes first issue of his "Sovremennik" /"The Contemporary"/ literary magazine. Larin's Gymnasium is founded.

1837---Alexander Pushkin duels and dies.

Russia 's first railroad is opened between St. Petersburg and Tsarkoe Selo.

Fire at the Winter Palace lasts three days.

1838---Monuments to Mikhail Kutuzov and Mikhail Barclay de Tolly are unveiled in Kazansky Square.

Lutheran Church of St. Peter and Moscovskiye Vorota arch are built.

1839---Pulkovskaya Observatory is opened.

Andrei Krayevsky publishes first issue of the "Otechestvennye Zapisky" /'Notes of the Fatherland'/ journal.

The first Russian daguerreotypes are made - one of them showing St.Isaac's Cathedral.

1840---Mikhail Lermontov publishes his novel, "A Hero of Our Time".

Nikolai Nekrasov publishes his book of poems, "Dreams and Sounds".

Taras Shevchenko publishes his book of poems, "The Kobzar".

Symphonic Society is formed.

1841---St. Petersburg 's first public hospital, Hospital for Workers (later, Alexander's Hospital in the Memory of February 19, 1861), is opened.

State Savings-Banks are established.

1842---Peter Clodt's equestrian groups are installed on the Anichkov Bridge.

Nikolai Gogol publishes the first part of his "Dead Souls".

Premiere of Mikhail Glinka's opera "Ruslan and Lyudmila" at the Bolshoi Theatre.

Vvedenskaya /'The Presentation'/ Church of the Lifeguard Semyonovsky Regiment is consecrated.

1843---Construction of the long distance railroad between St. Petersburg and Moscow begins.

Building of the General Corps Headquarters in Palace Square completed.

Russia 's first Agricultural Exhibition is held.

Telegraph between St. Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo is constructed.

Omnibuses become the city's first public transport

1844---Maryinsky/'Maria's/ Palace is built.

Vladimir Odoevsky publishes his novel, "The Russian Nights".

A special decree prohibiting Construction of buildings higher than 23,5 meters is issued.

1845---Columns of Glory are unveiled in Konnogvardeisky /'Horse-Guards'/ Boulevard.

Russian Geographic Society is founded.

Mikhail Butashevich-Petrashevsky's Circle is formed.

"Physiology of St. Petersburg" almanac (part I) is published.

1846---Imperial Archaeological Society is founded.

Nikolai Nekrasov and Ivan Panaev issue the first volume of their journal, "Sovremennik" /'The Contemporary'/.

Feodor Dostoevsky publishes his novel, "Poor Folk".

1847---Beloselsky-Belozersky's House construction begins in Nevsky Prospect.

Marius Petipa comes to St. Petersburg.

Ivan Goncharov publishes his novel, The Commonplace Story.

1848---A glass-roofed promenade known as Passage, is opened in Nevsky Prospect.

Frigate steamer "Archimedes" is launched from the Okhtiskoe Admiralty's stocks.

Feodor Dostoyevsky publishes his White Nights.

Vissarion Belinsky dies.

1849---Head Physical Observatory (now, the Head Geophysical Observatory named after A.I.Voyeykov) is opened.

Blagoveschensky /'Annunciation'/ Church of the Lifeguard Equestrian Regiment is consecrated.

Theatre-Circus is opened in Theatre Square.

Conspirators of Mikhail Butashevich-Petrashevsky's Group are arrested

1850---The Petrashev secret society conspirators are put to the civil execution in Semyonovsky Platz.

New Arsenal plant (now, the Arsenal machine building plant) is opened on the Vyborgskaya Side. Concert Society is formed.

The Blagoveschensky /'Annunciation'/ Bridge, the first regular bridge across the Neva river, is built,

1851---Construction of Nikolaevsky /Nicholas's/ railway terminal completed /now Moskovsky Railway Station/.

1852---New Hermitage museum is opened for public.

The first night of Mikhail Lermontov's drama, "The Masquerade" at Alexandrinsky Theatre

1853---Warshavsky /' Warsaw'/ railway terminal and the first section of St. Petersburg-Warsaw railroad between the capital and Gatchina is opened.

Chess Club is opened (' Amateur Society of Chess Players').

Premiere of Alexander Ostrovsky's comedy, "Do Not Do Things You Are Not Fit for", at Alexandrinsky /'Alexandra's/ Theatre.

Crimean War starts.

Population of the city is 523 000 people.

1854---British-French fleet of Admiral Charles Nepier approaches Kronstadt.

Holy Cross Community of Medical Nurses is formed.

1855---Emperor Nicholas I dies.

Alexander II ascends to the throne.

British-French Fleet makes its second vain attempt to conquer Kronstadt.

Baltic Fleet uses mines for the first time in world's history.

Monument to Ivan Krylov is unveiled in Letny Sad /' Summer Gardens'/.

1856---McPherson & Carr Wharf (now - Baltyisky Shipbuilding Plant) is founded.

The first night of Alexander Dargomyzhsky's opera, "The Mermaid", at the Theatre-Circus.

Karl May's private school is opened.

1857---Metal Works, Nevsky Foundry and Mechanical Plant are founded.

Baltyisky terminal and railroad between St. Petersburg and Peterhof is opened.

1858---Construction of St.Isaac's Cathedral is completed.

A disastrous explosion at the Okhtinsky Gunpowder Works.

First Russian stamps issued

1859---Monument to Nicholas I is unveiled in Maryinsky Square.

The first gas lamps lit streets and bridges of St.Peterburg.

Russian Musical Society and Literary Foundation are formed.

Museum of Agriculture is opened in Solyanoi Town

1860---State Bank of Russia is founded.

Maryinsky /'Maria's'/ Theatre is opened.

Crownwork Arsenal and the Konyushenny Museum are built.

Russo-American Rubber Manufacturing Company (now - the Treugolnik /'Triangle'/ Factory) is set up.

1861---Serfdom is abolished in Russia.

Students' riots begin.

St. Petersburg University is temporarily closed.

The first revolutionary proclamations are printed.

Construction of Nikolaevsky and Novo-Mikhailovsky palaces is completed.

Rumyantsev's Museum is transferred from St. Petersburg to Moscow.

1862---Big fire devastats the Apraksin Dvor and Schukin Dvor warehouses in Sadovaya Street.

Mikhail Mikhailov, Nikolai Shelgunov, Dmitry Pisarev and Nikolai Chernyshevsky are arrested.

Railway between St. Petersburg and Warsaw is opened.

Ludvig Nobel Works (now - Russky Diesel Plant) is founded.

St. Petersburg Conservatoire is founded.

The "Moguchaya Kuchka" / 'Mighty Band'/ musical association is formed.

1863---The first line of the city water pipe is put into operation.

St. Petersburg 's first kindergarten is opened.

The first line of horse tramway is opened.

St. Petersburg Artel ('Association') of Artists is formed.

The longer poem by Nikolai Nekrasov "Who's Happy and Free in Russia", and "What Is to Be Done", the novel by Nikolai Chernyshevski, are published.

1864---First steel is cast at the Obukhovsky Steelworks.

Nikolai Chernyshevsky is put to the civil execution in Mytninskaya Square.

St. Petersburg Commercial and Credit Bank is opened to become the first joint stock bank in Russia.

1865---German Reformatory Church on Moika River Embankment and Swedish Lutheran Church in Malaya Konyushennaya Street are consecrated.

Zoo is opened on the Peterburgskaya Side.

1866---Dmitry Karakozov attempts on the life of Alexander II.

"Sovremennik" and "Russkoe Slovo" magazines are closed.

Telegraph Agency is formed to become the first press agency in Russia.

Russian Technical Society is formed.

Feodor Dostoyevsky publishes his novel "Crime and Punishment"

1867---Construction of the palace for Grand Duke Vladimir Aleksandrovitch in the Palace Square begins.

First night of "Death of Ivan the Terrible" by Alexei K.Tolstoi at Alexandrinski Theatre

First Congress of Russian Natural Scientists opens.

1868---Engineer Nikolai Putilov purchases a government iron foundry (now - the Kirov Works).

Nikolai Nekrasov and Mikhail Saltykov-Schedrin renewed the publication of their journal, Otechestvennyie Zapiski /'Notes of the Fatherland'/.

1869---In St. Petersburg University Dmitry Mendeleev makes the first presentation of his Periodical Law and Periodical Table of Elements.

Prince of Oldeburgh's Hospital for Children (now - Children's Hospital No 19 after K.A.Rauchfus) is opened in Liteiny Prospect.

The first volume of the Niva /'Cornfield'/ journal is issued.

Census of St. Petersburg: 9 109 houses and 667 026 inhabitants in the capital.

1870---Finlyandsky /' Finland'/ terminal and railway between St. Petersburg and Vyborg is opened.

Association of Itinerant Artists, Peredvizhniki, and St. Petersburg Association of Architects are formed.

The first issue of "Russkaya Starina" /'Russian Antiquity'/ journal is published.

1871---Russian Bank for Foreign Trade is founded.

The first exhibition of Peredvizhniki is held in the Academy of Fine Arts.

Nechaevtsy (members of the secret society led by Nechaev) are brought to court in the first open trial in Russia.

1872---A violent fire destroys the show booths of Berg and Malafeev in Admiralty Square.

Construction of the Trubetskoi Bastion prison is completed.

First post cards are issued (later on called 'Open Letters').

1873---Town Council, executive body of the State Duma, is formed.

The first experiment is made to light the city streets with electricity.

Monuments to Empress Catherine II and Admiral Ivan Krusenstern are unveiled.

1874---Khozhdeniye V Narod /'Joining the People'/ Movement is suppressed by police.

Admiralty Embankment is built.

Alexandrovsky /'Alexander's'/ Garden is opened near the Admiralty.

Modest Musorgsky's opera," Boris Godunov", is first performed at Maryinsky theatre.

1875---Hotel Evropeyskaya (now - Grand Hotel Europe) is opened.

Pyotr Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto is played for the first time.

Construction of the House for Imprisonment Pending Trial is accomplished.

1876---The first issue of the Novoye Vremya /'New Time'/ newspaper edited by Alexei Suvorin is published.

The first workers' demanifestation under the red banner is held in Kazanskaya Square.

Russkoye Bogatstvo /' Russia's Riches'/magazine is initiated.

1877---Members of the Khozhdeniye V Narod Movement are brought to trial.

Premiere of Pyotr Tchaikovsky's ballet, " Swan Lake", at Maryinsky theatre.

German Lutheran Church of St. Michae in Sredni Prospect of Vasilievski island completed.

Nikolai Nekrasov dies.

1878---Circus of Gaetano Ciniselli is opened in a stone building.

Russia 's first higher school for women, Bestuzhevskie Kursy, is established.

Severny Souz /'The Northern Union'/ of Russian Workers is founded.

Vera Zasulich attempts on St. Petersburg Governor Trepov.

Sergei Stepnyak-Kravchinsky assasinates Nikolai Mezentsev, Chief of Gendarmes.

1879---Alexei Soloviev attempts on life of Alexander II.

Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya /'People's Will'/ is formed.

Construction of Liteyny /'Foundry'/ bridge across the Neva River is completed.

The first all-Russia chess tournament is held.

Central School of Technical Drawing of Baron A.L. Stieglitz is established and Maly /'Small'/ Theatre (now, the Bolshoi Drama Theatre named after G.Tovstonogov) is opened.

1880---Stepan Khalturin, a member of People's Will Organization, makes an explosion in Winter Palace.

"Regular" Plan of St. Petersburg is approved.

The first issue of "Birzhevye Vedomosti" /'The Exchange News'/ newspaper is printed.

1881---Fedor Dostoyevsky dies.

Emperor Alexander II is killed by Narodnaya Volia conspirators.

Alexander III ascends to the throne.

The Tsar's assassins are executed in Semyonovsky Platz.

1882---City's first telephone station is brought into operation.

The Skorokhod /'Fastrunner'/ shoe-making factory is founded.

The first night of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's opera "The Snow Maiden" at Maryinsky Theatre.

1883---The first power station is built.

St. Petersburg 's first performance of Pyotr Tchaikovsky's opera, "Eugine Onegin", at Ruadze's Concert Hall.

Ivan Turgenev is buried in Volkovskoye Cemetery.

Construction of the Church of Our Saviour On The Spilled Blood begins.

1884---Nevsky Prospect is provided with regular electric lighting.

Otechestvennye Zapiski Magazine is closed.

Construction of Kresty prison begins.

1885---St. Petersburg seaport is moved from Vassilievsky Island to Gutuevsky Island.

The Sea Canal is opened.

Construction of Grand Duke Alexei Aleksandrovich's Palace is completed at Moika Embankment.

Clinical Institute of Grand Duchess Yelena Pavlovna (now, the Medical Academy of Post-Diploma Education) is opened.

Dvoryansky Bank (Nobility Bank) is founded.

1886---First performance of Modest Musorgsky's opera, Khovanschina, at Kononov's Hall.

Aquarium Entertainment Garden (now - the Lenfilm Film Studio) is opened in Kamennoostrovsky Prospect.

Monument of Glory is festively unveiled near Troitsky Cathedral of the Lifeguards Izmailovsky Regiment.

1887---V.Lenin's elder brother Alexander Ulyanov and his fellow conspirators from the terrorist fraction of Narodnaya Volya are arrested and executed.

Construction of the State Council Archives building is completed in Millionnaya Street.

1888---Panaeva's Theatre is opened on Admiralty Embankment.

Vassily Andreev's Russian Folk Orchestra gives its first concert.

1889---Russian Trade and Industry Bank is opened.

Mikhail Saltykov-Schedrin dies.

Monument to Prince of Oldeburgh is unveiled in Liteiny Prospect.

Hospital in the Memory of Emperor Alexander II (now Children's Hospital No 3) is opened in Smolenskoye Pole.

1890---Maryinsky Theatre shows new productions, Pyotr Tchaikovsky's ballet, "The Sleeping Beauty", his opera, "Queen of Spades", and Alexander Borodin's opera, "Prince Igor".

Construction of the Mutual Credit Society building is completed on the Ekaterininsky Canal.

Population of St. Petersburg reaches 1 million people.

1891---First celebration of the First of May by St. Petersburg workers outside Narvskaya Zastava.

French Fleet comes on an official visit.

Theatre is opened in the Aquarium Gardens.

1892---Monument to Mikhail Lomonosov in Chernyshev Square and the monument to Nikolai Przhevalsky in Alexandrovsky /Alexander's/ Garden are unveiled.

The first issue of the "Mir Bozhiy" /'The World of God'/ magazine is published.

First Performance of "The Nutcracker" (ballet) and "Iolanta" (opera) by Pyotr Tchaikovsky at Maryinsky Theatre.

1893---Construction of the Great Choral Synagogue is completed.

Board of Weights and Measures is opened.

Pyotr Tchaikovsky dies.

1894---Alexander III dies.

Nicholas II ascends to the Russian throne.

Nicholas II and Alexandra Fedorovna are wed.

Fyodor Shalyapin sings his first performance in St. Petersburg on the stage of Arcadia Theatre.

Russian Theatrical Society is formed.

Primorskaya railroad between St. Petersburg and Sestroretsk is opened.

1895---The first automobile appeared in the city.

Russian-Chinese Bank is founded.

Kalashnikovskaya Bread Exchange is opened.

St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class is formed.

1896---The first film is shown to the public in the Aquarium Gardens.

The first cinema theatre is opened in Nevsky Prospect.

In St. Petersburg University, the device invented by Alexander Popov transmits the world's first radiogram.

Course for Training Leaders in Physical Exercises and Games (now - P.F. Lesgaft Institute of Physical Training) is instituted.

The first world championship in skating is held in Yussupov Gardens.

1897---Manifestation of Vetrova's supporters is held in Kazanskaya Square.

Official visit of Felix Fore, President of France, to St.Petersburg.

Women's Medical Institute (now, Medical University named after Academician Pavlov) is founded.

1898---Russian Museum of Emperor Alexander III is opened.

Construction of the building of the Army and Naval Officers' Assembly (now, Military Officers Club) is completed in Liteiny Prospect.

Russia 's first hockey match is held.

Mir Iskusstva ( World of Art) Association is founded.

1899---Russia 's first long-distance telephone line between St. Petersburg and Moscow is brought into operation.

Major students' riots have taken place.

City's first night shelter is opened.

1900---Cruiser "Aurora" is launched at the wharf of the New Admiralty.

Monument to Alexander Pushkin is unveiled in Tsarskoe Selo.

A Leisure Centre for workers, Narodny Dom /'People's House'/ of Emperor Nicholas II, and the Tenishev School buildings are completed.

1901---Manifestation of students is held in Kazanskaya Square.

Clashes of the workers of the Narvskaya Zastava Dstrict with the police (Obukhovskaya Oborona / the 'Obukhovo Defence'/).

Russia 's first football championship is held.

Religious and Philosophical Society is formed.

1902---Polytechnical Institute is opened in Lesnoye.

Stepan Balmashev, a socialist revolutionary, assassinates Dmitry Sipiagin, Minister of Home Affairs.

1903---St. Petersburg celebrates its bicentenary.

Troitsky bridge is opened.

Petrovskaya Embankment is completed.

Countess S.V. Panina's Ligovsky Narodny Dom is opened.

Yeliseevs' House is built in Nevsky Prospect.

Father George Gapon leads the newly created St. Petersburg Union of Russian Factory Workers.

Major flood raised the Neva waters 258 cm above the ordinary level.

1904---The congress of Emancipation Union is conducted

Yegor Sazonov, a socialist-revolutionary, assassinates Vyacheslav Plehve, Minister of the Interior.

Construction of Singer Company building (now, House of Books), Vitebskiy Railway Station, ballerina Matilda Kshesinskaya's mansion and St.John's Nunnery is completed.

Construction of Gavansky (Harbour) Workers' Township in the western part of Vassilievsky Island begins.

Vera Komissarzhevskaya's Theatre and Museum of Suvorov are opened.

Alexander Block publishes his 'Poems About La Belle Dame'.

1905---'Bloody Sunday' becomes the beginning of the first Russian Revolution.

General Political Strike.

Council of Workers' Deputies is founded.

Manifesto of Nicholas II, granting people civil freedoms is published.

Gregory Rasputin is introduced to the family of the Tsar.

Exhibition of Russian portrait paintings is held in Tavrichesky (Taurida) Palace.

Pushkinsky Dom (<Pushkin's House> Institute of Russian Literature) is founded.

1906---First State Duma is elected and, two months later, dissolved.

Sailors and soldiers revolted in Kronstadt.

An attempt is made to assassinate Prime-minister, Pyotr Stolypin.

St. Petersburg workers' deputies are arrested and taken to court.

A first taxi cab in the streets of the city.

1907---Second State Duma is convoked and three months later dissolved.

Church of the Resurrection of Christ /The Church of the Saviour on the Spilled Blood/ is consecrated.

Regular tramway traffic begins.

Institute of Psychoneurology is founded.

Museum of Old St. Petersburg is set up.

Ancient Theatre of Alexander Yevreinov is opened.

"A Man's Life" by Leonid Andreev and "Balaganchik", a lyrical drama by Alexander Blok are performed at Vera Komissarzhevskaya's Theatre.

Third Duma is convened .

1908---The first Russian feature film, 'Stenka Razin and the Princess', is shown.

Burial vault of the Grand Dukes of Russia is consecrated in the Fortress of St. Peter-and-Paul.

'A Distorting Mirror', cabaret-theatre, is opened.

The first issue of the 'Satirikon' magazine comes out.

1909---Monument to Alexander III is unveiled in Znamenskaya (Holy Sign) Square.

The first issue of the 'Apollo' magazine is published.

House of the Royal Guards Economic Society (later called the House of Leningrad Trade, now, House of St. Petersburg Trade) is opened.

1910---The first Zeppelin makes its flight over St. Petersburg.

All-Russia aeronautic festival is held in Kommendantsky Airfield in Kolomyagy.

Church of Christ the Saviour (The Saviour-on-the-Waters) and the Mosque are founded.

Russian-Asian Bank is founded.

City's population is 1 905 600 people, according to the latest census.

1911---Students' riots.

Peter the Great Bridge (later - Bolsheokhtinsky Bridge) across the Neva River is opened.

Construction of the building of Peter the Great College (now, Nakhimov High School) and the building of the Museum of Ethnography is completed.

Pilot A.A. Vassiliev makes the first successful flight from St. Petersburg to Moscow.

Monument to the crew of the "Stereguschiy" ("Vigilant") destroyer is unveiled in Alexander's park.

Association of poets, Poets' Workshop, is founded.

1912---Literary art-cabaret, 'Stray Dog', is opened.

Construction of the Astoria Hotel, Wavelberg Bank building and Mertens Trade House in Nevsky Prospect is completed.

Construction of the new building of the library of the Academy of Sciences, the 'New Petersburg' housing complex ,and the House of City Institutions in Kronverksky Prospect.begins.

Fourth Duma is convened .

1913---Tercentenary of the Romanovs' House is celebrated.

The Optical-Mechanical factory is founded.

Russko-Baltiysky Plant produces, for the first time in the world aviation history, a heavy multi motor aeroplane.

Construction of the German Embassy building in Isaakievskaya (St.Isaak's) Square and Polovtsov's Palace on Kamenniy (Stone) Island completed.

Traffic starts along Finlandskiy Railway Bridge across the Neva River.

Tragedy, 'Vladimir Mayakovsky', and the opera, 'Victory over the Sun', are staged at the Luna-park.

Ego-Futurists present their "Poezo"-concert in the assembly hall of Tenishev High School.

Sirin Publishers begins the publication of ' St. Petersburg', a novel by Andrei Bely.

First poetry books by Ossip Mandelstam ('Stone>) and Anna Akhmatova ('The Rosary') are published.

1914---War against Germany and Austro-Hungarian Empire begins. St. Petersburg is renamed Petrograd.

1915---Crowds of refugees flood Petrograd.

City Labor Exchange is opened.

Buddhist temple is consecrated in Novaya Derevnya ( New Village).

'A Cloud in Trousers', a poem by Vladimir Mayakovsky, is published.

1916---Literary art cabaret, Prival Komediantov (Comedians' Halt) is opened.

New building of General Treasury is completed, its operation room is over 2000 square meters.

Traffic on Murmansk railroad begins. Isaakievsky pontoon bridge over the Neva is burned.

Gregory Rasputin is murdered in Yussupov's Palace.

1917---February Revolution abolishes monarchy.

V.I. Lenin returned from abroad.

October overturn: Bolsheviks seize power.

Constituent Assembly is elected.

Population of Petrograd reaches 2 500 000 people.

1918---Bolsheviks dissolved the Constituent Assembly.

Russian capital is moved from Petrograd to Moscow.

The Northern Union of Communes headed by Gregory Zinoviev is formed.

Poet Leonid Kanegisser assassinats Moisei Uritski, Chairman of Petrograd CheKa (Extraordinary Committee).

Red Terror begins.

Vsemirnaya Literatura ('World Literature') publishing house is founded.

'The Twelve', poem by Alexander Blok, is published.

1919---Northwest Army of General Yudenich approaches Petrograd.

City is declared besieged.

Red Army wins battles at all the fronts.

First "Communist Subbotnik" (voluntary labour day) is held.

Monument to the Fighters of Revolution is constructed in Marsovo Polie.

Bolshoi Drama Theatre (BDT), The City Museum, the House of Arts (DISK) and the House of Books are opened.

1920---Second Congress of Communist International is held in Tavrichesky Palace.

Museum of Revolution is opened in Winter Palace and House of Scholars in the Palace of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich.

Mass theatre festival is dedicated to the third anniversary of the revolution.

Factories are at a standstill and streetlights are put out owing to a lack of fuel.

The population of the city decreased to 772, 000

1921---Kronstadt uprising against the Bolsheviks.

Alexander Block dies.

Nicholai Gumiliev is sentenced to death and executed by Petrograd CheKa.

Philharmonic Society Concert Hall is opened.

'The Old Petersburg' Society and the Central Bureau of Regional Studies are founded.

'Serapion's Brothers' literary group is created.

Gregory Kozintsev, Leonid Trauberg and Sergey Yutkevich set up their 'Factory of Eccentric Art' (FECS).

1922---Leading clergymen are tried and Metropolitan Veniamin is shot.

160 scholars, authors and artists are exiled from Russia.

Baltic Sea Ship Company resumes its activity.

Kuznechny Market construction begins.

Theatre for Young Spectators is opened.

'Soul of Petersburg' by Nicholai Antsiferov, 'Tristia> by Ossip Mandelstamm and 'Anno Domini MCMXXI' by Anna Akhmatova are published.

1923---Construction of the Smolny propelliers begins.

Smolny Cathedral is closed.

Renaming of streets in Petrograd.

1924---V.I. Lenin dies.

Petrograd is renamed Leningrad.

The first "Fordzon-Putilovets" tractors are manufactured.

The first radio program is transmitted from the studio in the Electromechanical Institute.

Disastrous flood - the water raised 369 cm above the ordinary level.

1925---Alexander Pushkin's museum apartment is opened on 12, Moika Embankment.

Left Opposition', headed by Gregory Zinoviev, is formed within the Russian Communist Party.

Construction of apartment houses in Traktornaya Street and power station of the Krasnoye Znamia Factory begins.

Sergey Yesenin perishes in the "Angleterre" Hotel.

1926---Sergey Kirov heads the Leningrad Communist Party Organisation.

Volkhovskaya hydroelectric power station is put into operation.

Monument to Lenin is unveiled in front of Finlyandsky Railway Station.

Premiere of Sergey Prokofiev's opera - 'Love for Three Oranges' at the Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet (former Mariinsky Theatre).

Regular bus traffic starts in the city.

1927---Secret gatherings and, later, the manifestation of the supporters of the 'united opposition' headed by Leo Trotsky, Gregory Zinoviev and Leo Kamenev.

Volodarsky (now - named after N.K.Krupskaya), Moskovsko-Narvsky (now - named after A.M. Gorky) and Vyborgsky Palaces of Culture, and the museum-apartment of V.I.Lenin are opened in Shirokaya Street.

David Burliuk, Mark Chagal, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov, Vassily Kandinsky, Vladimir Tatlin and other avant-garde painters introduced the latest trends in arts at the exhibition of their oeuvres in the State Russian Museum.

1928---Construction of Baburinsky and Kondratievsky dormitory areas begins on the Vyborgskaya Side.

Film of Vsevolod Pudovkin, 'The End of St. Petersburg', comes out.

Association of Real Arts (OBERIU) organizes its performance party 'Three Left Hours'.

1929---'Socialist emulation' comes into action.

The first defenders in the 'Academy Case' are arrested.

Vast number of churches are closed in different parts of the city, some of them are pulled down.

The first sound cinema theatre in the country is opened in 72, Nevsky Prospect

1930---Institute of Economics and Finance and the Shipbuilding Institute are founded.

Monument of Glory in front of the Trinity Cathedral of the Izmailovsky Lifeguards Regiment is demolished.

Anti-Religious Museum is opened in Isaakievsky Cathedral.

Construction of the Bateninsky Dormitory Area begins on the Vyborgskaya Side.

Vassileostrovskaya and Moskovsko-Narvskaya (now - Kirovskaya) kitchen factories are opened.

Premiere of Dmitry Shostakovich's opera, 'The Nose', and ballet, 'The Golden Age'.

1931---Construction of the Belomoro-Baltiysky Canal named after I.V. Stalin begins.

The first Soviet blooming mill is manufactured at the Izhorsky Works.

Experimental Factory produces the batch of synthetic rubber, the first in the country.

Moscovsko-Narvsky (now - Kirovsky) Department Store is opened.

Monument to the Victims of the 'Bloody Sunday' (January 5, 1905) is unveiled on the common grave at the Preobrazhensky (Transfiguration) Cemetery.

The first organ concert is given in the Big Concert Hall of the Philharmonic Society.

1932---'Anti religious pyatiletka (five year period)' begins.

Monks are arrested, churches are closed and destroyed.

Museum of the History of Religion And Atheism in Kazansky Cathedral, the All-Union Museum of VLKSM (Young Communist League) in the Winter Palace and the Central Park of Culture and Recreation are opened on Yelagin Island.

The first sportsmen parade is held in Uritsky Square.

Construction of the 'Big House', the GPU (State Political Department) building, is completed in Liteiny Prospect.

The automatic telephone station, the first in the city, is brought into operation.

Leningrad Airport is opened .

1933---Systematic demolition of temples continues.

Construction of the Communes House ('House of Political Convicts') is completed in the Square of Revolution.

Leningrad Butchery (now, the Samson Stock Company) starts operation.

Novy (New) Theatre (later Lensovet Theatre) and Vassileostrovsky Palace of Culture are opened.

Ossip Mandelstam gave his last performance in Leningrad.

1934---USSR Academy of Sciences is moved from Leningrad to Moscow.

Maly (Small) Opera House shows the opera by Dmitry Shostakovich, <Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk Region>.

"Chapayev", the film by Georgy and Sergey Vassiliev, produced at Lenfilm studio, comes on the screens.

Sergey Kirov is killed in Smolny. Andrey Zhdanov becomes Secretary of Leningrad Regional Party Committee.

Mass repressions begin.

1935---'Former supporters of Zinoviev and other 'counter revolutionary elements' are exiled from the city and Leningrad Oblast.

Master Plan of the city's development is approved.

Construction of the buildings of Moscovsky and Kirovsky District Municipal Councils is completed.

Necropolis museum, 'Literatorskie Mostki' (Writers' Gangways'), is founded in Volkovskoye Cemetery.

House of Entertaining Mechanics is opened in Fontanny Dom (former Sheremetiev's Palace).

Gregory Kozintsev and Leonid Trauberg's film, ' Youth of Maxim' comes out.

1936---Construction of Volodarsky Bridge over the Neva River is completed.

The Theatre named after Lenin Komsomol (now, 'Baltiysky Dom' theatre) is founded.

The first in the city trolleybus line is opened.

Construction of the House of Soviets in Moskovsky Prospect begins.

1937---The peak of 'big terror'.

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic is opened in the building of St. Nicholas Church.

Anichkov Palace is turned into Palace for Young Pioneers, the Marble Palace houses a department of Central Museum of V.I. Lenin.

Obelisk is erected on the spot of Alexander Pushkin's duel.

The first part of the film, 'Peter I', came out.

First performance of the Fifth Symphony of Dmitry Shostakovich played by Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra.

Alexander Kuprin returns to Leningrad from abroad.

1938---'Brief Course of History of USSR Communist Party is published.

Old Petersburg- New Leningrad Society is closed.

Reconstruction of Lieutenant Schmidt's Bridge and Construction of Frunzensky Department Store and Lensoviet Palace of Culture completed.

Museum of Sergey Kirov is opened in the former mansion of ballerina Kshessinskaya and the monument to Kirov is unveiled in Kirov Square.

The first Soviet TV program is telecast from the studio in Academician Pavlov Street.

1939---Monument to Alexander III is dismounted and given for preservation to the State Russian Museum.

Soviet-Finnish war begins.

Population of Leningrad is 3 200 000.

1940---Construction of Leningrad subway begins.

The premiere of Sergey Prokofiev's ballet, 'Romeo and Juliet', in Kirov Theatre.

1941---Hitler's Germany attacked the Soviet Union.

Leningrad is besieged.

'Road of Life' is built on the ice of the Ladoga Lake.

1942---Hundreds of thousands of the inhabitants of Leningrad die of cold and starvation.

Numerous losses are caused by air raids and bombing.

Attempts to break through the siege failed.

Seventh Symphony of Dmitry Shostakovich is performed in the Big Hall of Leningrad Philharmonic Society.

'The Leningrad Poem' by Olga Bergholtz is published.

1943---Siege of Leningrad is broken.

The first train with food arrives at Finlyandsky Railway Station.

1944---Leningrad is completely liberated from the siege.

Population of the city reduced to 560 000. Reconstruction begins.

Some of the city streets are given back their historical names.

Trolleybuses renewed their traffic.

'Heroic Defence of Leningrad' exhibition is held in Solianoy Town.

1945---Victor warriors are given grand welcome on their return from Germany.

Two Victory Parks, Moskovsky and Primorsky, are laid out.

1946---8 Nazi military criminals are publicly hanged on the square in front of "Gigant" Cinema theatre.

Central Committee of Communist Party issued a decree "On the magazines 'Zvezda' and ' Leningrad'" with accusations against Mikhail Zoschenko and Anna Akhmatova.

Museum of Nikolai Nekrasov is opened on the Liteiny Prospect.

1947---Reconstructed TV centre of Leningrad renewed the programing.

Campaign against 'cosmopolitanism' started. The USSR Academy of Arts is moved from Leningrad to Moscow.

Monument to Nicholai Chernyshevsky is unveiled. For the first time after the war, food rationing coupons are cancelled.

1948---New City Master Plan is approved.

Cruiser 'Aurora' is permanently moored at Petrogradskaya Embankment.

1949---Soviet television transmitted its first outdoors program about the military parade and workers' demonstration in Palace Square.

'Leningrad Case' is instituted, first people arrested.

Premiere of Reingold Glier's ballet, 'The Bronze Horseman', at the Kirov Opera House.

Memorial museum of Mikhail Lomonosov is opened in the Kunstkammer building.

Industrial output reached its pre-war level.

City begins to be supplied with natural gas.

1950---Primorsky Victory Park and the Stadium named after Kirov are opened.

Main hearing of 'the Leningrad Case' is held in the House of Military Officers.

Six of the accused in the "Leningrad Case" are executed by shooting.

1951---Military history museum of Alexander Suvorov is opened after the reconstruction.

1952---Museum of the Defence of Leningrad is demolished.

The monument to N.Rimsky-Korsakov is unveiled in Teatralnaya Square.

1953---'Conspiracy of medical doctors' is claimed to be disclosed.

Iosif Stalin dies.

Rehabilitation of the victims of Stalin's terror begins.

1954---Reconstruction of Pulkov Observatory, ruined during the war, is completed.

The first self-service shop in the city is opened.

1955---The first line of Leningrad subway is brought in operation.

The first prefabricated concrete house in the country is built.

The first issue of 'The Neva' Magazine comes out.

Museum of History of Leningrad is opened for public.

Strong flood raised the water 282 cm over the ordinary level.

1956---XX Congress of the CPSU.

Political prisoners are set free and the repressed are rehabilitated.

onstruction of Lenproekt Building in the Revolution Square is completed.

1957---Leningrad 's 250-th anniversary is celebrated.

Tradition to give a midday shot from the cannon on top of the Naryshkin Bastion of Peter-and-Paul's Fortress, interrupted in 1934, is renewed.

Monument to Alexander Pushkin is unveiled in Ploschad Iskusstv.

Country's first eternal flame is lit in Marsovo Polie.

Museum of Great October Socialist Revolution (now, Museum of the Political History of Russia) opens exhibitions in the former mansion of ballet dancer Kshessinskaya.

World's first atomic icebreaker, 'Lenin', is launched.

1958---New wave of anti-religious campaign begins.

Mikhail Zoschenko dies

. A collection of poems and translations of Anna Akhmatova is published.

1959---Restored rooms of the Grand Palace in Pushkin are opened for public.

Premiere of Leonid Yakobsson's ballet performance 'Choreographic Miniatures' in Kirov Opera House.

Population of Leningrad reaches 3 300 000 people.

1960---Memorial to the Victims of the Siege is opened in Piskariovskoye Cemetery.

Construction of the new building of Finliandsky Railway Station is completed.

1961---Construction of the Stadium named after V.I. Lenin is completed.

Stroitelei Bridge spanned the Malaya (Small) Neva is completed.

Church of the Assumption of the Mother of God ('The Saviour-on-Sennaya') is demolished.

Country's first Wedding is opened.

1962---Kirov Works starts to produce K-700 tractors.

New building of the Theatre for Young Spectator is constructed in Pionerskaya Square and the TV tower ( 316 metres high) is erected on Aptekarsky Island.

1963---House building plants begin assembling standard high raisers with 'the apartments of improved quality'.

TV Center construction in Chapygina Street is completed.

1964---Poet Josef Brodsky is tried and accused of 'persistent parasitism'.

The first 'White Nights' festival of arts is held.

Restored rooms of Grand Palace in Petrodvoretz are opened for visitors.

"Hamlet", a film by Gregory Kozintsev's, screened at the Lenfilm studio, comes out.

1965---Necropolis of the Victims of the Siege is opened at Serafimovskoye Cemetery.

Construction of 'Green Belt of Glory' begins.

Alexander Nevsky's Bridge across the Neva is opened.

1966---The third Master Plan of the development of Leningrad is approved.

Holy Trinity Church in Marat Street is demolished.

Society for the Preservation of Historical and Cultural Monuments is formed.

Anna Akhmatova dies.

1967---Construction of Leningrad Nuclear and Electricity Power Station begins.

Big Concert Hall 'Oktyabrskiy' and Palace of Sports 'Yubilieniy' are opened.

50th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution is celebrated with a grand performance on the Neva River ('The Festival of the ' Aurora').

1968---Putevoy Palace in Srednyaya Rogatka is demolished.

Monuments to Maxim Gorky and 'Heroic Komsomol' are unveiled.

Members of the All-Russia Social Christian League for the Emancipation of People are brought to court.

1969---Country's first aluminium bridge is constructed ( Kolomensky Bridge over the Griboyedov Canal).

'Choreographic Miniatures' Ballet Group organised.

The first issue of ' Aurora' magazine is published.

1970---Construction of the first building of the Leningrad Hotel is completed.

Southern Primorsky Park named after V.I. Lenin is opened.

State rooms of Pavlovsky Palace are restored in Pavlovsk.

Country's first universam (supermarket) is opened in Kupchino.

1971---Memorial Museum of Fiodor Dostoyevsky is opened.

"Architecture of Petersburg-Leningrad of 18 th-beginning of the 20th centuries" exposition is mounted in Peter-and-Paul's Fortress.

1972---Portico by Luidgi Ruska is reconstructed in Nevsky Prospect.

Poet Josef Brodsky is forced to emigrate.

Highest air temperature in city's history, + 33,6 C.

1973---New airport,'Pulkovo 1, is opened.

Construction of House of Political Education is completed in Proletarskaya Diktatura Square.

1974---Exhibition of 'Unofficial Art' is held in the Palace of Culture named after I.I. Gaz.

New Center for International Telephone Communication is brought into operation.

1975---Church of St. Boris and Gleb in Synopskaya Embankment is demolished.

Monument to Heroic Defenders of Leningrad is unveiled in Ploschad Pobiedy, and the obelisk is erected in the place where the Decembrists were executed at the Kronwerk of Peter and Paul's Fortress.

Exhibition of the history of Russian opera is opened in the memorial flat of Fyodor Shalyapin in Graftio Street.

1976---Palace of Youth is constructed on Pesochnaya Embankment.

Population of Leningrad is 4 400 000.

1977---Central Exhibition Hall is opened in the building of the former Horse Guards Manege.

Ballet Group of Boris Eifman gives its first performance.

1978---Hall of Memory at the Monument to Heroic Defenders of Leningrad, and the Pribaltiyskaya Hotel are opened.

1979---Construction of the dam from the protection of Leningrad from floods begins in the Gulf of Finland.

1980---Museum-apartment of Alexander Block is opened.

Construction of the Sport-and-Concert Complex in Yuri Gagarin Prospect is completed.

1981---Restoration of Menshikov's Palace, which became a department of the Hermitage, is completed.

Pulkovskaya Hotel is opened .

1982---Construction of the passenger seaport in Vassilievsky Island is completed, Kantemirovsky Bridge spanned the Bolshaya Nevka.

1983---First celebration of the birthday of St. Petersburg which becomes traditional.

Nevsky Collective Farm Market if completed.

1984---Leningrad is awarded the Gold European Medal for the successful preservation of architectural monuments.

'Zenith' football team won the USSR championship for the first time in its history.

1985---orbachev's Perestroika begins.

Obelisk "To the Hero City of Leningrad' is erected in Ploschad Vosstaniya.

1986---Re-enovated Pulkovo-2 Airport is opened.

Meeting against the demolition of the House of Delvig in Zagorodny Prospect.

Growing public activity to protect monuments of history and architecture.

1987---'The Master Plan for the Development of Leningrad and Oblast for 1987 - 2005' is approved.

Aurora Cruiser is returned after the reconstruction to the place of its eternal mooring.

Poetess Irina Odoyevtseva returns from abroad.

1988---Disastrous fire in the Library of the Academy of Sciences.

Church of St. Catherine in Murino is consecrated after reconstruction.

Churches are returning back to the believers.

Center for Concerts and Exhibitions 'Smolny Cathedral', and the Museum of Benois Family in Peterhof are opened.

Population of the city is 5, 000, 000 people.

1989---Historical center of Leningrad and the palaces and parks of its suburbs are included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO.

Historical names are retuned to the city streets on systematic basis.

Museum of Anna Akhmatova is opened in the Fontanny Dom.

Hermitage Theatre restoration is completed and 'Winter Palace of Peter I' exposition is mounted there.

Official badge 'To The Resident of Besieged Leningrad' - is introduced.

1990---Demonstrations supporting the reforms are held.

The first democratic elections to the City Council.

Ground-breaking ceremony for the Monument to Victims of Political Repressions in Petersburg-Leningrad.

1991---International TV marathon "Renaissance" is held.

Monument to Peter I by Mikhail Shemyakin is installed in Peter-and-Paul's Fortress.

Anatoly Sobchak is elected the first City Mayor.

Attempted anti democratic coup fails, and the Communist Party of the USSR is banned.

Presidium of the Supreme Council of Russia approves the results of the referendum and the city is returned its historical name, St. Petersburg.

1992---Churches are given back to the religious communities.

Department of the Central Museum of V.I. Lenin in Marble Palace is closed. The palace is given to the Russian Museum.

Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich is buried in the reconstructed Grand Dukes' Vault in Peter-and-Paul's Fortress.

Reconstruction of the Grand Hotel Europe is completed.

Interparliament Assembly of CIS is held at the Taurida Palace.

1993---The 290th anniversary of the foundation of St. Petersburg is celebrated.

Nevsky Palace Hotel is opened.

'The Historical Cemeteries of St. Petersburg' guidebook is published.

1994---Third Goodwill Games; about 2, 000 sportsmen from 55 countries compete in 24 kinds of sports.

Monument to Alexander III is installed in front of Marble Palace.

1995---First exhibition of trophy art works saved in the museum storage for 50 years, is held.

Monument to the First Builders of Petersburg is unveiled in former Sampsonievskoye Cemetery.

Grave accident between "Lesnaya" and "Ploshad Muzhestva" subway stations.

1996---Monument to the Victims of Political Repressions is unveiled on Robespierre Embankment.

Publication of the historical-theological encyclopaedia in three volumes, 'The Relics of St.Petersburg' - is completed.

1997---Vice Governor of St. Petersburg, Mikhail Manevich, is assassinated.

Monument to Feodor Dostoevsky is unveiled in Vladimirskaya Ploshad and the monument to Nikolai Gogol is erected in Malaya Koniushennaya Ploschad.

1998---Museum of the Church of the Saviour-on-the-Spilled-Blood (Church of the Resurrection of Christ) is opened to public after the restoration.

Construction of the new building of Russian National Library in Moskovsky Prospect is completed.

The remains of Nicholas II, his family members are buried in the Cathedral of St. Peter-and-Paul.

1999---City boarders are extended: Kronschtadt, Lomonosov, Pavlovsk, Petrodvorets, Pushkin, Sestroretsk become part of the city.

Academician Dmitry S. Likhachev dies.

Anatoly A. Sobchak's book "From Leningrad to St. Petersburg: Traveling in Time and Space" is published.

2000---Ice Palace is opened in Piatiletok Prospect.

Construction of "Ushakov Razviazka" /two level road-cross/ in Volynsky Pereulok is completed.

2001---Malaya Sadovaya Street is reconstructed into a walking area.

Admiralteysky Trade Center is opened in Moskovsky Prospect.

2002---Monument to Alexander Nevsky is opened.

Smolnaya Embankment construction is completed.

Population is 4, 670,000.

2003---Celebration of 300 th Anniversary of St. Petersburg.

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