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2014年11月15日

ボツワナでダイヤモンド発見。

経済

BBC Newsは2014年11月15日に、1967年04月に若い地質学者として、カラハリ砂漠探索していたガビン・レモント博士(Dr Gavin Lamont)、マンフレッド・マルクス(Manfred Marx)とジム・ギブソン(Gim Gibson)は、ボツワナ(Botswana)のオラパ(Orapa)でダイヤモンドを発見し、の経済を変容させた人になったと報告した。

【広告】 別の60歳代の方から、全身パックをしてホットシャワーで、余分な油を洗い落とすとき、お湯が玉になって滑り落ちます。こんな経験は、娘時代にしたことを思い出しました。何となく、娘時代に返ったような気分です。と、ご連絡をいただきました。ありがとうございます。

それは、1966年に独立し、すぐに国の財産を完全に変更した。
1968年06月23日に、デ・ビアス・ボツワナ鉱山会社(the De Beers Botswana Mining Company)が創設された。

ボツワナのダイヤモンド発見の歴史は1955年にツーリ・ブロック(Tuli Block)で始まった。

それは、小さな沖積で、3個のダイヤモンドがモトロウセ川(Motloutse river)に沿って見つかった。

1967年に、レットラケン(Letlhakane)とモピピ・パン)Mopipi Pan)村の間で、デビアス地質学者のチームは、ダイヤモンドを含有するキンバーライトの2つの主要な指標である豊富な多量のquantitiesおよびガーネットを見つけた。

1967年4月に、オラパでパイプが見つかった。

パイプおよび可変等級のサイズのために、サンプリングと評価は2年掛かった。

しかし、その結果は刺激的であった。

オラパの南東、レットラケン(Letlhakane)村の近くで、1968年には、2本のより小さなパイプが約40km発見された。

Botswana profile(ボツワナの年表)
A chronology of key events

1867 - European gold prospectors arrive, mining begins.

1885 - British proclaim a protectorate called Bechuanaland.

1890 - British protectorate is extended to Chobe river.

1950 - Chief of the Ngwato, Seretse Khama, is deposed and exiled by the British.

1952 - Rioters protest at Seretse Khama's exile.

1959 - Copper mines are established.

1960 - Bechuanaland People's Party (BPP) is established.

1960 December - Britain approves new constitution for Bechuanaland. Executive Council, Legislative Council and African Council are established.

1961 - Seretse Khama appointed to Executive Council.

1962 - Seretse Khama founds Bechuanaland Democratic Party (BDP), later to become Botswana Democratic Party.

1965 - Gaborone becomes administrative centre.

1965 - BDP wins legislative elections, first to be held under universal adult suffrage. Seretse Khama becomes prime minister.

Independence
1966 September - Bechuanaland is granted independence and becomes Republic of Botswana with Seretse Khama as president.

1967 - Diamonds discovered at Orapa.

1969 August - BDP wins general election. Khama is re-elected for another term.

1977 January - UN Security Council resolution demands Rhodesian hostilities on Botswana border cease.

1977 March - Botswana Defence Force is established.

1979 October - General elections: BDP wins majority, Khama is re-elected as president.

1980 - Botswana is founder member of Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), grouping which aims to reduce region's economic reliance on South Africa.

1980 - President Seretse Khama dies. Quett Masire, former vice-president, is made president after National Assembly vote.

1984 September - General elections: BDP wins majority, Quett Masire is re-elected as president.

1985 June - Buildings in Gaborone are raided and 12 people are killed by South African forces seeking alleged ANC members. Action is condemned by UN Security Council.

1989 October - General elections; BDP wins majority. National Assembly re-elects Masire as president.

1991 - 12,000 public sector workers sacked after strike action calling for increased wages.

1994 October - Legislative elections: BDP secures 53% of vote. Masire re-elected by National Assembly.

Kalahari relocations
1995 - Government begins relocating thousands of bushmen to settlements outside Central Kalahari Game Reserve.

1997 - Constitutional amendments approved. Presidency is limited to two five-year terms. Voting age lowered from 21 to 18.

1998 March/April - Masire resigns as president and retires. Festus Mogae, formerly vice president, becomes president under new constitutional arrangements.

1998 June - Botswana Congress Party established after split in BNF and is declared official opposition after most BNF deputies switch allegiance.

1999 September - Six-day state of emergency declared to resolve voter registration problem.

1999 October - General elections: BDP wins majority, Festus Mogae is confirmed as president.

1999 December - International Court of Justice grants control of Sedudu-Kasikili - a river island disputed by Botswana and Namibia - to Botswana.

2000 February/March - Devastating floods: More than 60,000 are made homeless.

Battle against Aids
2000 August - President Mogae says Aids drugs will be made available free of charge from 2001.

2001 March - National diamond corporation, Debswana, says it will subsidise drugs for workers with Aids.

2002 March - Kalahari bushmen take the government to court to challenge a forced eviction from their land; the case is dismissed on a technicality.

2003 September - Botswana begins erecting a fence along its border with Zimbabwe to stem an influx of Zimbabwean illegal immigrants.

2004 March - HIV infection rate falls to 37.5%; Botswana no longer has the world's highest rate of infection.

2004 August - Workers at Botswana's largest diamond-mining company strike over pay, after a court rules that such action is illegal. Some 1,000 workers are sacked.

2004 October - President Mogae secures a second term in a landslide election victory.

2006 December - A group of Bushmen wins a four-year legal battle to hold on to their ancestral lands.

2008 March - Botswana launches its own diamond trading company - the Diamond Trading Company Botswana (DTCB).

2008 April - Seretse Khama Ian Khama takes over as president.

2008 October - Botswana's former President Festus Mogae wins a $5m prize set up to encourage good governance in Africa.

2009 April - Botswana says it will halve diamond production because of falling demands for gems.

2009 October - Ruling BDP party wins elections, and another 5-year term for President Khama.

2009 November - Botswana stages a substantial economic recovery after stepping up diamond production again, a bank reports.

2010 November - Human rights group Survival International calls for a boycott of Botswanan diamonds, accusing the government of trying to force Basarwa bushmen away from their ancestral lands.

2011 January - An appeals court in Botswana overturns a July 2010 order depriving the indigenous Basarwa bushmen of the right to drill for water on their ancestral land.

2011 April - Civil servants begin what becomes a two-month strike over pay.

2012 January - Talks by three main opposition parties aimed at forming coalition fail, destroying hopes of challenge to ruling Botswana Democratic Party.

2012 November - Government says it will ban the commercial hunting of wildlife from 2014, citing a sharp decline in animal populations.

2013 November - Global diamond giant De Beers completes the move of its rough stone sales operation from London to Gaborone, in what is seen as a step towards turning Botswana into one of the world's top diamond hubs.

2014 July - Opposition leader Gomolemo Motswaledi dies in a car crash, just weeks before the general election. Police say it was an accident, his party suspects foul play.

2014 September - Editor of the Sunday Standard is arrested after the paper reported that the president was involved in a car accident.

2014 October - Ruling Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) wins the general elections with 33 of the 57 seats.

レットラケン(Letlhakane)村のGoogle Earthポインター情報
21°25'00.0"S 25°35'00.0"E
または、
-21.416667, 25.583333

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