1995-11-06

米国空軍がMilstarのために、「タイタン4」を打ち上げた。

米国空軍(The US Air Force)はUS$10億で、米国国防総省のMilstar通信衛星(Milstar communications satellite)のために、最も強力な無人ロケット「タイタン4(Titan 4)」を打ち上げた。

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DoD(米国国防総省/United States Department of Defense)のCold Warに対応できる軍事衛星Milstar((MILitary Strategic Tactical And Relay)通信衛星(Milstar communications satellite)のために、打ち上げられた。

General Characteristics
Primary function: Global military communications system
Primary contractor: Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space
Power plant: Solar panels generating 8,000 watts
Weight: About 10,000 pounds (4,536 kilograms)
Orbit altitude: 22,250 nautical miles (inclined geostationary orbit)
Payload:
Low data rate communications (voice, data, teletype and facsimile) at 75 bps to 2,400) bps (All satellites)
Medium data rate communications (voice, data, teletype, facsimile) at 4.8 kbps to 1.544 bps (Satellites 3 through 6 only)
Launch vehicle: Titan IVB/Centaur upper stage
Inventory: 2
Unit Cost: $800 million

Titan Chronology

1955 May 2---Titan 1 begun. USAF approved Western Development Division proposals to inaugurate a second ICBM airframe, which became the Titan ICBM (SM-68).

1957 December---Titan plus Vanguard proposed to place instrument package into lunar orbit The Martin Company proposed to the Department of Defense (DOD) that a stage of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile be combined with the Vanguard rocket to provide a launch vehicle capable of placing an instrument package into lunar orbit and, ultimately, on the lunar surface.

1958 June 16---Dynasoar Phase I contracts announced. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Phase I contracts for the Dyna-Soar boost-glide orbital spacecraft are awarded by the USAF to two teams of contractors: one headed by Boeing (Aerojet, General Electric, Ramo-Wooldridge, North American, and Chance Vought), and one headed by Martin (Bell, American Machine & Foundry, Bendix, Goodyear, and Minneapolis-Honeywell). Under the $ 9 million one-year contracts each team was to refine its design, leading to a competitive down-select.

1958 July---Advanced Titan considered. USAF reviews improvements (inertial guidance, storable fuel, 1 x 9 basing, both stages constant 3.05 m diameter, in silo launch) to the Titan I.

1959 January 19---Silo-launched Titan approved. Major General Schriever approves conversion of future Titan facilities from silo-lift to in-silo launch.

1959 February 6---21:22 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I A-3 Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). First test launch of USAF Titan ICBM (A-3) from Cape Canaveral. Dummy second stage (500 km range).

1959 February 25---19:45 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I A-5 Test mission Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1959 April 3---17:11 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I A-4 Test mission Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1959 May 4---18:30 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I A-6 Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Successful dummy second stage separation.

1959 May 15---Titan 1 B-4 FAILURE: Exploded during static testing. Titan 1 B-4

1959 June 1---Dyna-Soar contractors Boeing and Martin selected. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. The Dyna-Soar source selection board completed its evaluation of the proposals of the Boeing Airplane Company and the Martin Company. The board recommended the development of the Boeing glider but also favored the employment of the orbtal Titan C booster offered by Martin.

1959 July 3---Titan 1 B-3 FAILURE: Exploded during static testing. Titan 1 B-3

1959 August 14---16:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I B-5 FAILURE: Failure. Test mission Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1959 September 16-18---Plans for advanced launch vehicles The ARPA-NASA Booster Evaluation Committee appointed by Herbert F. York, DOD Director of Defense Research and Engineering, April 15, 1959, convened to review plans for advanced launch vehicles. A comparison of the Saturn (C-1) and the Titan-C boosters showed that the Saturn, with its substantially greater payload capacity, would be ready at least one year sooner than the Titan-C. In addition, the cost estimates on the Titan-C proved to be unrealistic. On the basis of the Advanced Research Projects Agency presentation, York agreed to continue the Saturn program but, following the meeting, began negotiations with NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan to transfer the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (and, therefore, Saturn ) to NASA.

1959 November 9---Contractor selection for Dynasoar and Titan I announced. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Boeing and Martin selected by USAF to develop Dynasoar and Titan I launch vehicle. The compromise project reformulation a week earlier led to this announcement by the Secretary of the Air Force. Boeing was the winner of the DynaSoar design competition on 9 November 1959---but for the glider and total system only. Martin was selected as an associate contractor for booster development. Dynasoar received the designation WS-620A on 17 November 1959

1959 December 12---17:11 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I C-3 FAILURE: Exploded just above pad. RVX-3 Re-entry Vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). First Titan ICBM launching testing second stage was unsuccessful at AMR.

1960---Configuration of Titan 3B proposed by Martin in mid-1960's. Titan 3B for deep space missions with Centaur upper stage, Algol strapons for liftoff thrust augmentation. Never flown.

1960 February 2---18:08 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I B-7A Test mission Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 February 5---21:46 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I C-4 FAILURE: Failure. RVX-3 Re-entry Vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1960 February 24---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I G-4 RVX-4 test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 March 8---18:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I C-1 FAILURE: Failure. RVX-3 Re-entry Vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1960 March 22---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I G-5 RVX-4 test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). USAF Titan fired 5,000 statute miles / 8000 km and data capsule recovered.

1960 April 8---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I C-5 RVX-3 Re-entry Vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 April 21---20:55 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I G-6 RVX-4 test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 April 28---20:18 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I C-6 RVX-3 Re-entry Vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 May 13---21:25 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I G-7 RVX-4 test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 May 27---17:20 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I G-9 RVX-4 test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 June---Martin awarded a contract to develop the Titan 2 ICBM.

1960 June 8---Martin to develop the Dyna-Soar booster airframe. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. The Air Force gave the Martin Company responsibility for the development of the Dyna-Soar booster airframe.

1960 June 24---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I G-10 RVX-4 test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 June 27---Aero-Jet to develop booster engines for the Dyna-Soar system. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. The Air Force authorized the Aero-Jet General Corporation to develop booster engines for the Dyna-Soar system.

1960 July 1---17:29 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I J-2 FAILURE: Destroyed 90 m above pad. Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Titan 1 J (Mk 4 RV)

1960 July 28---21:38 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I J-4 FAILURE: 130 km range. Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Titan 1 J (Mk 4 RV)

1960 August 10---22:46 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I J-7 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Titan 1 J (Mk 4 RV)

1960 August 30---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I J-5 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 September 28---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I J-8 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 September 29---14:20 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I G-8 RVX-4 test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 October 7---15:50 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I J-3 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 October 24---23:16 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I J-6 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Titan ICBM fired 6,100 miles / 9800 km, 100 miles longer than any previous shot, with tactical-type nose cone.

1960 November 28---Titan II instead of Titan I for Dyna-Soar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. The Assistant Secretary of the Air Force requested ARDC to examine the feasiblity of employing Titan II instead of Titan I for Dyna-Soar suborbital flights.

1960 December 2---Ellsworth AFB -. Titan I ICBM 850th SMS activated at Ellsworth AFB

1960 December 4---05:35 GMT---Vandenberg OSTF. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I V-2 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1960 December 20---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I J-9 FAILURE: Failure. Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1960 December 26---First segmented solid motor test. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Successful firing of a solid-propellant rocket motor using "building block" method was announced by NASA.

1961 January 12---Titan II to be the Dyna-Soar suborbital Step I booster. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Air Force headquarters announced that Titan II would be the suborbital Step I booster.

1961 January 13---USAF changes Dynasoar launch vehicle to Titan II Spacecraft: Dynasoar.

1961 January 20---20:53 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-10 FAILURE: Failure. Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 February 1---Beale AFB -. Titan I ICBM 851st SMS activated at Beale AFB

1961 February 1---Lowry AFB -. Titan I ICBM 848th SMS activated at Lowry AFB

1961 February 10---05:55 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-11 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 February 13---Beginning of Gemini Spacecraft: Gemini. First formal NASA/McDonnell discussions on Mercury Mark II (Gemini).

1961 February 20---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-13 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 March 3---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-12 FAILURE: Failure. Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 March 28---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-14 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 March 31---19:42 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-15 FAILURE: Failure. Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

aaa---Larson AFB -. Titan I ICBM 568th SMS activated at Larson AFB

1961 May 3---Vandenberg SLTF. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I VS-1 Demonstration launch Agency: USAF. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi). The nation's first silo launch of a Titan I at Vandenberg AFB.

1961 May 7---Titan II proposed for lunar landing program Spacecraft: Gemini LOR. Albert C. Hall of The Martin Company proposed to Robert C. Seamans, Jr., NASA's Associate Administrator, that the Titan II be considered as a launch vehicle in the lunar landing program. Although skeptical, Seamans arranged for a more formal presentation the next day. Abe Silverstein, NASA's Director of Space Flight Programs, was sufficiently impressed to ask Director Robert R. Gilruth and STG to study the possible uses of Titan II. Silverstein shortly informed Seamans of the possibility of using the Titan II to launch a scaled-up Mercury spacecraft.

1961 May 8---Martin briefed NASA on the Titan II weapon system. Spacecraft: Gemini, Mercury Mark I. Martin Company personnel briefed NASA officials in Washington, D.C., on the Titan II weapon system. Albert C. Hall of Martin had contacted NASA's Associate Administrator, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., on April 7 to propose the Titan II as a launch vehicle for a lunar landing program. Although skeptical, Seamans nevertheless arranged for a more formal presentation. Abe Silverstein, NASA Director, Office of Space Flight Programs, was sufficiently impressed by the Martin briefing to ask Director Robert R. Gilruth and Space Task Group to study possible Titan II uses. Silverstein shortly informed Seamans of the possibility of using the Titan II to launch a scaled-up Mercury spacecraft.

1961 May 12---Martin C plan for Dyna-Soar Step IIA booster. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. A Dyna-Soar technical evaluation board recommended the Martin C plan for a Step IIA booster.

1961 May 23---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-16 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 June 1---Mountain Home AFB -. Titan I ICBM 569th SMS activated at Mountain Home AFB

1961 June 24---03:28 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I M-1 FAILURE: Failure. Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1961 July---Martin proposal for a Titan-boosted Mercury vehicle. Spacecraft: Mercury Mark I. James L. Decker of Martin Company submitted a proposal for a Titan-boosted Mercury vehicle. A Mercury-Titan program, expected to span an 18-month flight schedule, would benefit from the Air Force's booster development and test of the ballistic missile system and the considerable design and test that the Air Force had expended in the Dyna-Soar program to adapt the vehicle to manned spaceflight. The Titan, with its sea-level rating of 430,000 pounds of thrust in the first stage and 100,000 pounds in the second stage, was capable of lifting significantly heavier spacecraft payloads than the Mercury-Atlas. Its hypergolic propulsion system, using storable liquid propellants, was a much simpler system than the cryogenic propellant system in Atlas. A highly reliable booster could be provided, employing complete redundancy in the flight control systems in the form of a three-axis reference system, autopilot, servo, electrical, and hydraulic systems. The short time he proposed would depend on the availability of pad 19 at Cape Canaveral, planned for conversion to the Titan II configuration. Pad 19, unlike the other three Titan I pads, had been intended for space applications and was better designed for required prelaunch test programs.

1961 July 11---Phoenix A388 space launch system recommended for Dyna-Soar Step IIA booster. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. The Dyna-Soar Directorate of the Space Systems Division recommended employment of the Phoenix A388 space launch system for the Step IIA booster.

1961 July 21---02:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-18 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 July 25---19:05 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I M-2 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 August 1---Lowry AFB -. Titan I ICBM 849th SMS activated at Lowry AFB

1961 August 3---Martin briefed Space Task Group on Titan II technical characteristics and performance. Representatives of Martin Company briefed Director Robert R. Gilruth and some of the senior staff of Space Task Group on Titan II technical characteristics and expected performance. At a senior staff meeting four days later, August 7, Gilruth commented on the Titan II's promise for manned spaceflight, particularly its potential ability to place larger payloads in orbit than could Atlas, which would make it 'a desirable booster for a two-man spacecraft.' Martin had estimated the cost of procuring and launching nine Titan II boosters, with cost of ancillary equipment, at $47.889 million spread over fiscal years 1962 through 1964.

1961 August 4---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-19 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 August 5---Solid motor segment test. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Segmented solid-propellent rocket engine fired by United Technology Corp. at Sunnyvale, generating over 200,000 pounds of thrust in 80-second firing. Developed under NASA contract, center section of engine contained over 55,000 pounds of propellant, the largest single piece yet manufactured in the United States.

1961 September 7---01:30 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-17 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). USAF Titan successfully launched from Atlantic Missile Range, making 6,100-mile flight.

1961 September 8---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I M-3 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 September 23---20:36 GMT---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-2 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle research and development mission Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Launched from Titan II silo

1961 September 29---01:52 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-20 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 October---Titan II to be selected as the launch vehicle for NASA's advanced Mercury. Spacecraft: Gemini. Martin Company received informal indications from the Air Force that Titan II would be selected as the launch vehicle for NASA's advanced Mercury. Martin, Air Force, and NASA studied the feasibility of modifying complex 19 at Cape Canaveral from the Titan weapon system configuration to the Mercury Mark II launch vehicle configuration.

1961 October 7---01:30 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I M-4 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). USAF Titan I launched from Cape Canaveral carrying Titan II guidance system.

1961 October 13---Titan III selected as the space launch system for the Air Force. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. The Department of Defense approved the Titan III as the space launch system for the Air Force.

1961 October 24---23:28 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-21 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 October 27---Program of manned spaceflight for 1963-1965. Spacecraft: Gemini. Space Task Group (STG), assisted by George M. Low, NASA Assistant Director for Space Flight Operations, and Warren J. North of Low's office, prepared a project summary presenting a program of manned spaceflight for 1963-1965. This was the final version of the Project Development Plan, work on which had been initiated August 14. Additional Details: Program of manned spaceflight for 1963-1965..

1961 November 6---Working group on large launch vehicles In a memorandum to D. Brainerd Holmes, Director, Office of Manned Space Flight (OMSF), Milton W. Rosen, Director of Launch Vehicles and Propulsion, OMSF, described the organization of a working group to recommend to the Director a large launch vehicle program which would meet the requirements of manned space flight and which would have broad and continuing national utility for other NASA and DOD programs. The group would include members from the NASA Office of Launch Vehicles and Propulsion (Rosen, Chairman, Richard B. Canright, Eldon W. Hall, Elliott Mitchell, Norman Rafel, Melvyn Savage, and Adelbert O. Tischler); from the Marshall Space Flight Center (William A. Mrazek, Hans H. Maus, and James B. Bramlet); and from the NASA Office of Spacecraft and Flight Missions (John H. Disher). (David M. Hammock of MSC was later added to the group.) The principal background material to be used by the group would consist of reports of the Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group (Golovin Committee), the Fleming Committee, the Lundin Committee, the Heaton Committee, and the Debus-Davis Committee. Some of the subjects the group would be considering were:

1. an assessment of the problems involved in orbital rendezvous,
2. an evaluation of intermediate vehicles (Saturn C-3, C-4, and C-5),
3. an evaluation of Nova-class vehicles,
4. an assessment of the future course of large solid-fuel rocket motor development,
5. an evaluation of the utility of the Titan III for NASA missions, and
6. an evaluation of the realism of the spacecraft development program (schedules, weights, performances).

Rosen set November 20 as a target date for a recommended program.

1961 November 22---00:30 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-22 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 November 29---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I M-5 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 December 5---Recommendation that the weapon system of the Titan II, with minimal modifications, be approved for the Mercury Mark II rendezvous mission. Spacecraft: Gemini. On the basis of a report of the Large Launch Vehicle Planning Group, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator, and John H. Rubel, Department of Defense Deputy Director for Defense Research and Engineering, recommended to Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara that the weapon system of the Titan II, with minimal modifications, be approved for the Mercury Mark II rendezvous mission. The planning group had first met in August 1961 to survey the Nation's launch vehicle program and was recalled in November to consider Titan II, Titan II-1/2, and Titan III. On November 16, McNamara and NASA Administrator James E. Webb had also begun discussing the use of Titan II.

1961 December 7---Two-man Mercury Mark II spacecraft announced Spacecraft: Gemini. Plans for the development of a two-man Mercury spacecraft were announced by Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director. The two-man spacecraft, to be built by McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, would be similar in shape to the Mercury spacecraft but slightly larger and two to three times heavier. Its booster rocket would be a modified Air Force Titan II, scheduled for flight test in early 1962. One of the major objectives in the program would be a test of orbital rendezvous, in which the two-man spacecraft would be launched into orbit by the Titan II and attempt to rendezvous with an Agena stage launched by an Atlas rocket. The total cost for a dozen two-man spacecraft plus boosters and other equipment was estimated at $500 million.

1961 December 7---DOD/NASA coordination for Mercury Mark II Spacecraft: Gemini. NASA Associate Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., and DOD Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering John H. Rubel recommended to Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara and NASA Administrator James E. Webb that detailed arrangements for support of the Mercury Mark II spacecraft and the Atlas-Agena vehicle used in rendezvous experiments be planned directly between NASA's Office of Manned Space Flight and the Air Force and other DOD organizations. NASA's primary responsibilities would be the overall management and direction for the Mercury Mark II/ Agena rendezvous development and experiments. The Air Force responsibilities would include acting as NASA contractor for the Titan II launch vehicle and for the Atlas-Agena vehicle to be used in rendezvous experiments. DOD's responsibilities would include assistance in the provision and selection of astronauts and the provision of launch, range, and recovery support, as required by NASA.

1961 December 7---NASA announced plans to develop a two-man Mercury capsule. Spacecraft: Gemini. In Houston, Director Robert R. Gilruth of Manned Spacecraft Center announced plans to develop a two-man Mercury capsule. Built by McDonnell, it would be similar in shape to the Mercury capsule but slightly larger and from two to three times heavier. Its booster would be a modified Titan II. A major program objective would be orbital rendezvous. The two-man spacecraft would be launched into orbit and would attempt to rendezvous with an Agena stage put into orbit by an Atlas. Total cost of 12 capsules plus boosters and other equipment was estimated at $500 million. The two-man flight program would begin in the 1963-1964 period with several unmanned ballistic flights to test overall booster-spacecraft compatibility and system engineering. Several manned orbital flights would follow. Besides rendezvous flybys of the target vehicle, actual docking missions would be attempted in final flights. The spacecraft would be capable of missions of a week or more to train pilots for future long-duration circumlunar and lunar landing flights. The Mercury astronauts would serve as pilots for the program, but additional crew members might be phased in during the latter portions of the program.

1961 December 7---Recommendations to Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara on the division of effort between NASA and DOD in the Mark II program. Spacecraft: Gemini. NASA Associate Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., and John H. Rubel, Department of Defense (DOD) Deputy Director for Defense Research and Engineering, offered recommendations to Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara on the division of effort between NASA and DOD in the Mark II program. They stressed NASA's primary responsibility for managing and directing the program, although attaining the program objectives would be facilitated by using DOD (especially Air Force) resources in a contractor relation to NASA. In addition, DOD personnel would aquire useful experience in manned spaceflight design, development, and operations. Space Systems Division of Air Force Systems Command became NASA's contractor for developing, procuring, and launching Titan II and Atlas-Agena vehicles for the Mark II program.

1961 December 9---First test of UTC 1205 rocket motors. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Solid-propellent rocket motor generating nearly 500,000 pounds of thrust was fired in a static test of 80-second duration by United Technology Corp. at Sunnyvale, Calif., under USAF contract.

1961 December 13---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I AJ-23 NTMP TV test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 December 15---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I M-6 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 December 26---Dynasoar suborbital tests deleted from program. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Development time schedule for Dyna-Soar was reduced when DOD authorized the USAF to move directly from B-52 drop tests to unmanned and then manned orbital flights. This eliminated the previous interim stage of suborbital flights to be powered by the Titan II. This required renegotiation of the development contract held by the Martin Co. and negotiating of a new contract for a larger booster.

1961 December 26---Manned Spacecraft Center directed Air Force Space Systems Division to authorize contractors to begin the work necessary to use the Titan II in the Mercury Mark II program. On December 27, Martin-Baltimore received a go-ahead on the launch vehicle from the Air Force. A letter contract for 15 Gemini launch vehicles and associated aerospace ground equipment followed on January 19, 1962.

1961 December 28---USAF announces Titan III for Dynasoar Spacecraft: Dynasoar. With continued weight growth USAF announces Titan III to be developed for Dynasoar orbital missions.

1961 December 28---Titan 2 first ground test. Spacecraft: Gemini. Titan II, an advanced ICBM and the booster designated for NASA's two-man orbital flights, was successfully captive-fired for the first time at the Martin Co.'s Denver facilities. The test not only tested the flight vehicle but the checkout and launch equipment intended for operational use.

1961 December 28---Titan 2 first static ground test. Titan 2 was successfully captive-fired for the first time at the Martin Co.'s Denver facilities.

1961 December 29---NASA issued the Gemini Operational and Management Plan, which outlined the roles and responsibilities of NASA and Department of Defense in the Gemini (Mercury Mark II) program. Spacecraft: Gemini. NASA would be responsible for overall program planning, direction, systems engineering, and operation-including Gemini spacecraft development; Gemini/Agena rendezvous and docking equipment development; Titan II/Gemini spacecraft systems integration; launch, flight, and recovery operations; command, tracking, and telemetry during orbital operations; and reciprocal support of Department of Defense space projects and programs within the scope of the Gemini program. Department of Defense would be responsible for: Titan II development and procurement, Atlas procurement, Agena procurement, Atlas-Agena systems integration, launch of Titan II and Atlas-Agena vehicles, range support, and recovery support. A slightly revised version of the plan was signed in approval on March 27 by General Bernard A. Schriever, Commander, Air Force Systems Command, for the Air Force, and D. Brainerd Holmes, Director of Manned Space Flight, for NASA.

1962 January 1---Davis-Monthan AFB -. Titan 2 390th SMW and 570th SMS (9 missiles) activated at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona.

1962 January 3---Statement of Work for the procurement of Titan II launch vehicles for the Gemini program. Manned Spacecraft Center prepared a Statement of Work to be accomplished by Air Force Space Systems Division (SSD) in its role as contractor to NASA for the procurement of Titan II launch vehicles for the Gemini program. The launch vehicle would retain the general aerodynamic shape, basic systems, and propulsion concepts of the missile. Modifications, primarily for crew safety, were to be kept to a minimum. The Statement of Work accompanied a purchase request for $27 million, dated January 5, 1962, for 15 Titan launch vehicles. Pending ratification of the Gemini Operational and Management Plan, however, funding was limited to $3 million. To oversee this work, SSD established a Gemini Launch Vehicle Directorate, headed by Colonel Richard C. Dineen, on January 11. Initial budgeting and planning were completed by the end of March, and a final Statement of Work was issued May 14; although amended, it remained in effect throughout the program.

1962 January 21---00:57 GMT---Vandenberg 395-A3. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-4 Demo Agency: USAF SAC?. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 January 26---Titan II plans to ensure flight safety and enhance reliability. After investigating potential malfunction problems of the modified Titan II/Gemini launch vehicle, Martin-Baltimore prepared a study report with plans to provide the components necessary to ensure flight safety and enhance reliability. Martin defined the malfunction problem quantitatively in terms of the probability of each cause and its characteristic effect on the system and vehicle. Martin intended to keep the launch vehicle as much like the weapon system as possible; thus the data obtained from the Air Force's weapon system development program would be applicable to the launch vehicle. Only minimal modifications to enhance probability of mission success, to increase pilot safety, and to accommodate the Gemini spacecraft as the payload were to be made. These included a malfunction detection system; backup guidance, control, and hydraulic systems; and selective electrical redundancies.

1962 January 29---23:30 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I M-7 Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 February 15---Aerospace Corporation to support of the Gemini Launch Vehicle Program. Air Force Space Systems Division issued a Technical Operating Plan to Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, California, for support of the Gemini Launch Vehicle Program; a contract followed on March 15. Aerospace was to assume responsibility for general systems engineering and technical direction of the development of the launch vehicle and its associated subsystems. Aerospace had already established a Gemini Launch Vehicle Program Office in January.

1962 February 22---Proposal for redundant subsystems for the Gemini launch vehicle. Spacecraft: Gemini. Martin-Baltimore submitted its initial proposal for the redundant flight control and hydraulic subsystems for the Gemini launch vehicle; on March 1, Martin was authorized to proceed with study and design work. The major change in the flight control system from Titan II missile to Gemini launch vehicle was substitution of the General Electric Mod IIIG radio guidance system (RGS) and Titan I three-axis reference system for the Titan II inertial guidance system. Air Force Space Systems Division issued a letter contract to General Electric Company, Syracuse, New York, for the RGS on June 27. Technical liaison, computer programs, and ground-based computer operation and maintenance were contracted to Burroughs Corporation, Paoli, Pennsylvania, on July 3.

1962 February 23---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-18 FAILURE: Failure. Research and development Cat II / operational test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1962 March 1---McConnell AFB -. Titan 2 381st SMW and 532nd SMS (9 missiles) activated at McConnell AFB, Kansas.

1962 March 16---18:09 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-2 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). The Air Force successfully launched a Titan II intercontinental ballistic missile. This was the first full-scale test of the vehicle; it flew 8000 km out over the Atlantic Ocean.

1962 March 21---Contract to Aerojet-General for 15 propulsion systems for the Gemini launch vehicle. Air Force Space Systems Division awarded a letter contract to Aerojet-General Corporation, Azusa, California, for the research, development, and procurement of 15 propulsion systems for the Gemini launch vehicle. It also included the design and development of the related aerospace ground equipment. Aerojet had been authorized to go ahead with work on the engines on February 14, 1962, and the final engine was scheduled for delivery by April 1965.

1962 March 23---Air Force Space Systems Division published the "Development Plan for the Gemini Launch Vehicle System". From experience in Titan II and Mercury programs, the planners estimated a budget of $164.4 million, including a 50 percent contingency for cost increases and unforeseen changes.

1962 March 30---Martin-Baltimore submitted a "Description of the Launch Vehicle for the Gemini Spacecraft" to Air Force Space Systems Division. This document laid the foundation for the design of the Gemini launch vehicle by defining the concept and philosophy of each proposed subsystem.

1962 April 1---Little Rock AFB -. Titan 2 308th SMW and 373rd SMS (9 missiles) activated at Little Rock AFB, Arkansas

1962 April 18---Lowry AFB -. Titan I ICBM 848th SMS (nine missiles) declared operational at Lowry AFB

1962 May 1---Davis-Monthan AFB -. Titan 2 571st SMS (9 missiles) activated within the 390th SMW at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona.

1962 May 4---21:43 GMT---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-34 Research and development Category II test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 May 10---Lowry AFB -. Titan I ICBM 849th SMS (nine missiles) declared operational at Lowry AFB

1962 May 12---Project Gemini cost estimates had tripled from the original estimate of $250 million. Spacecraft: Gemini. James E. Webb, NASA's new Administrator, reviewed the Gemini program. Project Gemini cost estimates at this point ($744.3 million) had increased substantially over the original estimate of $250 million. Estimated spacecraft cost had risen from $240.5 to $391.6 million; Titan II cost, from $113.0 to $161.8 million; Atlas-Agena, from $88.0 to $106.3 million; and supporting development (including the paraglider program), from $29.0 to $36.8 million. Estimated operations costs had declined from $59.0 to $47.8 million.

1962 May 16-17---A Launch Vehicle-Spacecraft Interface Working Group was established. Gemini Project Office (GPO) and Aerospace had agreed on the need for such a group at a Gemini-Titan coordination meeting on May 11. The main function of the group, composed of Martin and McDonnell personnel with a McDonnell representative as chairman, was to provide mutual exchange of design and physical data on mechanical, electrical, and structural details between the spacecraft contractor and the booster contractor. The group would make no policy decisions; its actions were to be reviewed at regularly scheduled coordination meetings held by GPO.

1962 May 21---Amendment No. 6 to the Gemini launch vehicle procurement contract assigned $2.609 million to fund the construction necessary to convert pad 19 at Cape Canaveral for Gemini flights. The Air Force had originally constructed pad 19 for the Titan I development program. Following the final Titan I development flight (January 29) from the Cape, design of the required modifications had begun in February. In April, Gemini Project Office decided that Pad 19 would have an erector rather than a gantry, the upper third of which would be designed as a white room. The final design review of pad 19 modifications took place July 9-10, and the Army Corps of Engineers awarded the construction contract to Consolidated Steel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Construction began in September. Work was completed and pad 19 was activated on October 17, 1963.

1962 May 23---Avco proposal for a space station. Spacecraft: MOL. Representatives from Avco Manufacturing Corporation made a presentation to MSC on a proposal for a space station. Prime purpose of the station, company spokesmen said, was to determine the effects of zero-g on the crew's ability to stand reentry and thus fix the limit that man could safely remain in orbit. Avco's proposed station design comprised three separate tubes about 3 m in diameter and 6 m long, launched separately aboard Titan IIs and joined in a triangular shape in orbit. A standard Gemini spacecraft was to serve as ferry vehicle.

1962 May 23---Avco proposal for Titan-launched space station. Avco's proposed station design comprised three separate tubes about 3 m in diameter and 6 m long, launched separately aboard Titan 2s and joined in a triangular shape in orbit. A standard Gemini spacecraft was to serve as ferry vehicle.

1962 June 7---18:21 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-1 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1962 June 30---Martin-Baltimore's airborne systems functional test stand went into operation at Baltimore. In this 3000-square-foot facility, all airborne systems in the Gemini launch vehicle---including flight control, hydraulic, electrical, instrumentation, and malfunction detection---were assembled on tables and benches; actual engines, but simulated propellant tanks and guidance, were used. In addition to individual and combined systems tests, the facility was used to check system design changes and trouble-shoot problems encountered in other test programs.

1962 July 6---Martin prepared a plan for flight testing the malfunction detection system (MDS) for the Gemini launch vehicle on development flights of the Titan II weapon system. Gemini Project Office (GPO) had requested Martin to prepare Systems Division and Aerospace approved the plan and won GPO concurrence early in August. This so-call 'piggyback plan' required installing the Gemini MDS in Titan II engines on six Titan II flights to demonstrate its reliability before it was flown on Gemini.

1962 July 11---18:51 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-6 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1962 July 12---Gemini-Titan Launch Operations Committee. A technical team at Air Force Missile Test Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida---responsible for detailed launch planning, consistency of arrangements with objectives, and coordination---met for the first time with official status and a new name. The group of representatives from all organizations supplying major support to the Gemini-Titan launch operations, formerly called the Gemini Operations Support Committee, was now called the Gemini-Titan Launch Operations Committee.

1962 July 25-26---A reliability review of the Titan II launch vehicle engine system was held in Sacramento, California, at Aerojet-General's Liquid Rocket Plant, the site where the engines were being developed. Gemini engines had to be more reliable than did intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) engines. This requirement meant supplementing the ICBM engine reliability program, a task being performed by Aerojet under Air Force Space Systems Division direction.

1962 July 25---16:17 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-4 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1962 August 1---McConnell AFB -. Titan 2 533rd SMS (9 missiles) activated within the 381st SMW at McConnell AFB, Kansas.

1962 August 16---Mountain Home AFB -. Titan I ICBM 569th SMS (nine missiles) declared operational at Mountain Home AFB

1962 August 20---US Department of Defense announced Titan III launch vehicle. The Department of Defense announced plans to develop a Titan III launch vehicle powered by both solid and liquid fuel rocket motors with a total thrust of over 11 million newtons (2.5 million Ibs). .Scheduled to become operational in 1965, the Titan III would be used to launch the Air Force's X-20 (Dyna Soar) manned spacecraft, as well as heavy unmanned military satellites. Martin Marietta Corporation had been selected as prime contractor for the project, at an estimated cost of between $500 million and $1 billion. At a news conference the following day, Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara cited the Titan III as a major step toward overtaking the Soviet Union in various phases of military space development.

1962 September 1---Little Rock AFB -. Titan 2 374th SMS (9 missiles) activated within the 308th SMW at Little Rock AFB, Arkansas

1962 September 8---Beale AFB -. Titan I ICBM 851st SMS (nine missiles) declared operational at Beale AFB

1962 September 12---15:50 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-5 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1962 September 26---Larson AFB -. Titan I ICBM 568th SMS (nine missiles) declared operational at Larson AFB

1962 September 28---Ellsworth AFB -. Titan I ICBM 850th SMS (nine missiles) declared operational at Ellsworth AFB

1962 October 1---Air Force Space Systems Division revised the Development Plan for the Gemini launch vehicle. The budget was raised to $181.3 million. Cost increases in work on the vertical test facility at Martin's Baltimore plant, on the conversion of pad 19 at Cape Canaveral, and on aerospace ground equipment had already generated a budget increase to $172.6 million during September. The new Development Plan also indicated that the first launch date had slipped to December 1963.

1962 October 6---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-35 Research and development Category II test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 October 10---X-20 flight dates compatible with Titan IIIC schedules. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. The Dyna-Soar program completed a system package program, which made the X-20 flight dates compatible with projected Titan IIIC schedules.

1962 October 12---16:24 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-9 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1962 October 15---Titan III research and development begun. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Following Congressional approval of development funding, Air Force headquarters issued System Program Directive 9, authorizing research and development of Titan III, System 624A. By this time the funding and schedule for development of the Titan IIIC booster was the pacing item in the Dynasoar project. The launch schedule had to be revised and reduced yet once again. Delivery of the first Dyna-Soar was to be made by October 1964 and first orbital launch by the end of 1965. While the first glider test would be 14 months later than the original July 1957 schedule, the first orbital flight was expected six months earlier.

1962 October 26---17:05 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-12 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1962 November---During the first three weeks of the month, Air Force Space Systems Division and Martin-Baltimore negotiated the terms of the contract for Phase I of the Gemini launch vehicle program. The resulting cost-plus-fixed-fee contract included an estimated cost of $52.5 million and a fixed fee of $3.465 million. This contract covered the development and procurement of the first launch vehicle and preparations for manufacturing and procuring the remaining 14 vehicles required by the Gemini program.

1962 December---Aerojet-General contract for the first phase of the Gemini launch vehicle engine program. Air Force Space Systems Division and Aerojet-General negotiated a cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for the first phase of the Gemini launch vehicle engine program, February 14, 1962, through June 30, 1963. The contract required delivery of one set of engines, with the remaining 14 sets included for planning purposes. Estimated cost of the contract was $13.9 million, with a fixed fee of $917,400 for a total of $14,817,400.

1962 December 5---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-11 Research and development Category II test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 December 6---20:31 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-11 FAILURE: Failure. Mk 4 re-entry vehicle test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Titan II flight N-11, the eighth in a series being conducted by the Air Force to develop the weapon system, was launched from Cape Canaveral. It carried a design change intended to reduce the amplitude of longitudinal oscillations which had appeared during first stage operation on all seven previous Titan II flights. This phenomenon, which subsequently became known as POGO, generated g-forces as high as nine in the first stage and over three at the position on the missile corresponding to the location of the spacecraft on the Gemini launch vehicle. Fearing the potentially adverse effect on astronaut performance of such superimposed g-forces, NASA established 0.25g at 11 cycles per second as the maximum level tolerable for Gemini flights. As a first try at solving the POGO problem, Titan II N-11 carried standpipes in each leg of the stage I oxidizer feed lines to interrupt the coupling between the missile's structure and its propulsion system. This coupling was presumed to be the cause of the instability. Postflight analysis, however, revealed that the POGO fix was unsuccessful; longitudinal oscillation had actually been multiplied by a factor of two.

1962 December 19---20:08 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-13 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1962 December 26---Gemini Launch Vehicle Configuration Control Board. Air Force Space Systems Division established the Gemini Launch Vehicle Configuration Control Board to draw up and put into effect procedures for approving and disapproving specifications and engineering change proposals for the Gemini launch vehicle. It formally convened for the first time on March 5, 1963.

1963 January 10---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-15 FAILURE: Failure. Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1963 January 19---McNamara requests review of the Titan III nd Gemini programs. Spacecraft: Dynasoar, Gemini. The Secretary of Defense directed a review of the Titan III program and the Gemini program of NASA.

1963 January 21---James E Webb, Administrator of NASA, and Robert S McNamara, Secretary of Defense, concluded a major policy agreement defining the roles of NASA and Department of Defense (DOD) in Project Gemini. The agreement provided for the establishment of a joint NASA-DOD Gemini Program Planning Board. The board would plan experiments, conduct flight tests, and analyze and disseminate results. NASA would continue to manage Project Gemini, while DOD would take part in Gemini development, pilot training, preflight checkout, launch, and flight operations, and would be specifically responsible for the Titan II launch vehicle and the Atlas-Agena target vehicle. DOD would also contribute funds toward the attainment of Gemini objectives.

1963 January 29-30---Titan II development flight failures caused by problems in the airborne radio guidance system. At a launch guidance and control coordination meeting, Aerospace described three Titan II development flight failures that had been caused by problems in the General Electrical Mod III airborne radio guidance system. Although these failures did not appear to be the result of inherent design faults that might react on the Gemini program, Aerospace felt that a tighter quality assurance program was needed: 'GE has a poor MOD III (G) quality control program, basically poor workmanship.'

1963 January 29---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-8 Research and development Category II test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 February 6---17:59 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-16 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 February 16---21:45 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-7 FAILURE: Failure. Awful Tired Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi). Research and development launch---Mk 6 re-entry vehicle

1963 February 18---Pilot safety philosophy and procedures would be carried over from Mercury-Atlas to Gemini-Titan. In a letter transmitting copies of the Gemini Launch Vehicle Pilot Safety Program to Gemini contractors and other organizations engaged in Gemini development and operations, Air Force Space Systems Division explained that pilot safety philosophy and procedures would be carried over from Mercury-Atlas to Gemini-Titan.

1963 March 1---The stage II oxidizer tank from Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 was airlifted from Martin-Denver to Martin-Baltimore to be used in GLV-1. GLV propellant tank and skirt assemblies were manufactured, pressure-tested, and calibrated at Martin-Denver, then shipped to Baltimore where the GLV was assembled. Additional Details: The stage II oxidizer tank from Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 was airlifted from Martin-Denver to Martin-Baltimore to be used in GLV-1..

1963 March 7---Study group to recommend DOD experiments for inclusion in the Gemini flight program. The Gemini Program Planning Board, meeting in Washington, agreed to the establishment of an ad hoc study group to compare NASA and Department of Defense (DOD) objectives for the Gemini program and to recommend DOD experiments for inclusion in the Gemini flight program. The group met in continuous session March 25 to April 26, presenting its final report to the board on May 6. The board then recommended that a program of inflight military experiments be immediately approved, that the Air Force establish a field office at Manned Spacecraft Center to manage DOD participation in the Gemini program in general and integration of experiments in particular, and that work on preventing longitudinal oscillations in stage I and combustion instability in stage II of the Gemini launch vehicle to be urgently pursued. The board declined to recommend additional flights in the Gemini program, as suggested by the study group, to encompass experiments that would not fit into the framework of the planned Gemini program. The Secretary of Defense and NASA Administrator concurred in the Board's recommendations.

1963 March 21---15:23 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-18 Mk 6 re-entry vehicle test launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 March 30---08:45 GMT---Vandenberg 395-A2. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-3 NTMP K-17 Target mission Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 April 1---POGO problems in the Titan II. The Titan II-Gemini Coordination Committee was established to direct efforts to reduce longitudinal vibration (POGO) in the Titan II and to improve engine reliability. Air Force Space Systems Division (SSD) and Aerospace had presented to NASA and the Air Force a series of briefings on the POGO problem that culminated in a briefing to the Gemini Program Planning Board. The main problem was that POGO level satisfactory in the weapon system was too high to meet NASA standards for the Gemini program, and further reduction in the POGO level required a much more elaborate and extensive analytic and experimental program than had so far been considered necessary. The board approved the SSD/Aerospace proposals and established a committee to oversee work toward a POGO remedy. The high-level committee was composed of officials from Air Force Ballistic Systems Division, SSD, Space Technology Laboratories, and Aerospace.

1963 April 5---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I V-1 Research and development launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 April 13---Vandenberg 395-A3. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-1 NTMP K-21 Target mission Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 April 19---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-21 FAILURE: Failure. Research and development test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Mk 6 re-entry vehicle

1963 April 23-24---The Gemini Abort Panel met. Martin-Baltimore's analysis of the last three Titan II flight tests tended to show that successful crew escape would have been possible. McDonnell presented data on spacecraft structural capabilities, but lack of data on what to expect from Titan II catastrophic failure meant that spacecraft structural capabilities remained a problem. Also some questions had existed as to what could happen to the adapter retrosection during and after an abort. A study had been made of this problem, assuming a 70,000 foot altitude condition, and there appeared to be no separation difficulties. This study investigated the period of up to 10 seconds after separation, and there was no evidence that recontact would occur.

1963 April 27---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-8 Dinner Party Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Research and development launch. Mk 6 re-entry vehicle.

1963 May 1---10:15 GMT---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I V-4 FAILURE: Failure. Research and development launch Agency: USAF AFSC.

1963 May 2---Charles W Mathews, new Acting Manager of Project Gemini, reviewed the current status of the spacecraft, launch vehicles, and ground facilities for the Gemini Management Panel. Modifications of launch complexes 19 and 14, of the tracking network, and of Atlantic Missile Range checkout facilities were all on schedule, although no margin remained for complex 19 work. The Atlas and Agena presented no problems, but the Gemini launch vehicle schedule was tight; technical problems, notably stage I longitudinal oscillations and stage II engine instability, were compounded by funding difficulties. The Gemini spacecraft, suffering from late deliveries by subcontractors, was being reprogrammed.

1963 May 6---The Gemini Program Planning Board approved the Air Force Systems Command development plan for the Gemini/Titan II improvement program. The plan covered the development work required to man-rate the Titan II beyond the requirements of the Titan II weapon system and included three major areas: (1) reducing longitudinal oscillation levels to NASA requirements, (2) reducing the incidence of stage II engine combustion instability, and (3) cleaning up the design of stage I and II engines and augmenting the continuing engine improvement program to enhance engine reliability. The work was to be funded by the Titan Program Office of Air Force Ballistics Systems Division and managed by the Titan II/Gemini Coordination Committee, which had been established April 1. NASA found the plan satisfactory.

1963 May 7-17---Aerojet-General delivered the first flight engines for Gemini launch vehicle No. 1 to Martin-Baltimore. Aerojet-General had provided a set of Type 'E' dummy engines March 18. These were installed and used to lay out tubing and wiring while the launch vehicle was being assembled. Additional Details: Aerojet-General delivered the first flight engines for Gemini launch vehicle No. 1 to Martin-Baltimore..

1963 May 9---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-14 FAILURE: Failure. Research and development test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Mk 6 re-entry vehicle.

1963 May 13---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-19 Flying Frog Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Research and development launch. Mk 6 re-entry vehicle.

1963 May 24---17:33 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-17 Research and development test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Mk 6 re-entry vehicle

1963 May 29---The vertical test facility (VTF) at Martin-Baltimore was activated. The VTF comprised a 165-foot tower and an adjacent three-story blockhouse with ground equipment similar to that used at complex 19. In it, the completely assembled Gemini launch vehicle was tested to provide a basis for comparison with subsequent tests conducted at complex 19. Each subsystem was tested separately, then combined systems tests were performed, concluding with the Combined Systems Acceptance Test, the final step before the launch vehicle was presented for Air Force acceptance.

1963 May 29---16:56 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-20 FAILURE: Failed 55 seconds after launch. Research and development test Agency: USAF AFSC. Titan II flight N-20, the 19th in the series of Air Force research and development flights, was launched from Cape Canaveral. It carried oxidizer standpipes and fuel accumulators to suppress longitudinal oscillations (POGO). During the spring of 1963, static firings of this configuration had been successful enough to confirm the hypothesis that POGO was caused by coupling between the missile structure and its propulsion system, resulting in an unstable closed loop system. Standpipes and accumulators, by interrupting the coupling reduced the source of instability. Flight N-20 failed 55 seconds after launch and yielded no POGO data. Although the failure was not attributed to the installed POGO fix, Air Force Ballistics Systems Division decided officially that no further Titan II development flights would carry the POGO fix because so few test flights remained to qualify the weapon system operationally. This decision did not stand, however, and the POGO fix was flown again on N-25 (November 1), as well as on two later flights.

1963 June 2---Stage I of Gemini launch vehicle 1 was erected in Martin-Baltimore's vertical test facility. Stage II was erected on June 9, and posterection inspection was completed June 12. Subsystem Functional Verification Tests began June 10.

1963 June 13---Manned Spacecraft Center---Atlantic Missile Range Operations Office reported that the malfunction detection system would be flown on Titan II launches N-24, N-25, N-29, N-31, and N-32. The first launch in this so-called 'piggyback program' was scheduled for June 21. All preparations for this flight, including installation and checkout of all malfunction detection system components, were reported complete at a Titan II coordination meeting on June 14.

1963 June 20---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-22 Thread Needle Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Research and development launch. Mk 6 re-entry vehicle.

1963 June 25---Martin-Baltimore received the stage II fuel tank for Gemini launch vehicle 2 from Martin-Denver. This was a new tank, replacing a tank rejected for heat treatment cracks. Stage II oxidizer tank and stage I fuel and oxidizer tanks were received July 12 after a roll-out inspection at Martin-Denver July 1-3.

1963 July 12---Effects on pilot performance of longitudinal oscillations (POGO) of the Gemini launch vehicle. Gemini Project Office (GPO) completed a test program on the centrifuge at Ames Research Center to evaluate the effects on pilot performance of longitudinal oscillations (POGO) of the Gemini launch vehicle. When subjected to oscillatory g-loads ranging from 0 to ± 3g superimposed on a steady-state load of 3.5g, pilot perception and performance decreased markedly above ± 0.25g. Primary effects were impaired pilot vision, reduced eye scan rate, masked sensory perception and kinesthetic cues, and degraded speech. GPO reconfirmed the need to reduce POGO to a maximum of 0.25g.

1963 July 12---Gemini Project Office exploring the possibility of backing up the first Gemini flight with a payload consisting of a boilerplate reentry module and a production adapter. Acting Manager Charles W Mathews informed Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) senior staff that Gemini Project Office was exploring the possibility of backing up the first Gemini flight with a payload consisting of a boilerplate reentry module and a production adapter. Additional Details: Gemini Project Office exploring the possibility of backing up the first Gemini flight with a payload consisting of a boilerplate reentry module and a production adapter..

1963 July 16---Vandenberg 395-A2. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-24 Demonstration and shakedown operations launch Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 July 31---Electronic-Electrical Interference (EEI) Tests of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1. Electronic-Electrical Interference (EEI) Tests of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1 began in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore, following a review by Air Force Space Systems Division and Aerospace of data from Sub-system Verification Tests. Additional Details: Electronic-Electrical Interference (EEI) Tests of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1..

1963 August 15---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-7 Demonstration and shakedown operations launch Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 August 21---23:23 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-24 Research and development / Pod T-202 test / plume study mission Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Titan II development flight N-24 was launched from the Atlantic Missile Range. This was the first of five flight tests in the Gemini malfunction detection system (MDS) piggyback series. All MDS parameters were lost 81 seconds after liftoff because of a short circuit in the MDS. Operation in the second flight (N-25 on November 1) was normal except for two minor instrumentation problems. Three more test flights (N-29 on December 12, 1963; N-31 on January 15, 1964; and N-33 on March 23, 1964) verified the performance of the Gemini MDS under actual conditions of flight environment and engine operation.

1963 August 30---Vandenberg 395-A3. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-56 Demonstration and shakedown operations launch Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 September 3---A Mission Planning Coordination Group was established. Flight: Gemini 3. A Mission Planning Coordination Group was established at the request of the Gemini Project Office to review monthly activities in operations, network guidance and control, and trajectories and orbits; and to ensure the coordination of various Manned Spacecraft Center elements actively concerned with Gemini mission planning. Additional Details: A Mission Planning Coordination Group was established..

1963 September 6---Department of Defense approved the Titan II Augmented Engine Improvement Program. On November 15, Aerojet-General received an Air Force contract to develop and test new engine components to correct weak and potentially dangerous problem areas of engine design. Aerojet-General had already initiated the development effort on September 30. The goal was to enhance engine reliability by a complete redesign rather than resort to piecemeal fixes as problems came up. While the primary goal was not achieved, the program did yield several side benefits, including the correction of several minor design deficiencies, the improvement of welding techniques, and the development of better assembly procedures.

1963 September 6---The formal Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of Gemini launch vehicle No. 1 was conducted in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Two preliminary CSAT dry runs had been conducted on August 2 and 17, in conjunction with Electronic-Electrical Interference (EEI) Tests. Additional Details: The formal Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of Gemini launch vehicle No. 1 was conducted in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore..

1963 September 11-20---Vehicle acceptance team for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1. The vehicle acceptance team for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1 inspected the vehicle and reviewed its manufacturing and testing history, focusing on the results of the Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of September 6. Additional Details: Vehicle acceptance team for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1..

1963 September 14---Gemini Project Office reported a delay of about three weeks in the battery qualification program. McDonnell had sent a team to investigate the problem of high porosity welds in titanium battery cases. Another problem had turned up with the batteries in prequalification vibration test. The batteries vibrated excessively, although they did not fail electrically; the vibration's amplification factor was apparently low enough to be remedied by potting.

1963 September 17---Vandenberg 395-A2. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-83 Demonstration and shakedown operations launch Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 September 23---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-23 Tar Top Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Research and development launch. Mk 6 re-entry vehicle.

1963 September 30---Manned Spacecraft Center awarded its first incentive-type contract to Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc., Dallas, Texas for the fabrication of a trainer to be used in the Gemini launch vehicle training program. The fixed-price-incentive-fee contract had a target cost of $90,000, a target profit of $9,000, and a ceiling of $105,000. The incentive was based on cost only and provided for an 80/20 sharing arrangement; that is, the contractor would pay from his profit 20 percent of all savings under the target cost, or, alternatively, would receive 20 percent of all savings under the target cost. This meant that the contractor's profit would be zero after $97,500 was spent, and would be minus if costs exceeded $105,000.

1963 September 30---Air Force Space Systems Division contracted with Aerojet-General for a program to develop a backup for the injectors of the second stage engine of the Gemini launch vehicle. Titan II development flights had shown the stage II engine tended toward incipient combustion instability. The Gemini Stability Improvement Program, begun as a backup, became a program aimed at maximum probability of success on December 24, 1963. The 18-month program produced a completely redesigned stage II engine injector.

1963 October 8---Evaluation of data from the second Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1. Martin-Baltimore completed its evaluation of data from the second Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1, found it acceptable, and presented it to the GLV-1 vehicle acceptance team (VAT). Additional Details: Evaluation of data from the second Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1..

1963 October 15---Reconsideration of flying Gemini fixes on Titan II development flights. Personnel from Air Force Space Systems Division (SSD), Air Force Ballistic Systems Division (BSD), and Titan II contractors met in Los Angeles to reconsider flying Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) fixes on Titan II development flights. BSD, which was responsible for the weapon system development program, had halted the installation of GLV fixes on the Titan II flights because of the limited number of flights remaining to qualify the missile. General Bernard A Schriever, Commander of Air Force Systems Command (of which BSD and SSD were subordinate division), intervened in support of an active program to clean up launch vehicle problem areas. The incorporation of GLV fixes on Titan II flights resumed on November 1 with the flight of Titan II N-25.

1963 October 23---McNamara briefed on Titan III and Dyna-Soar. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Secretary McNamara was briefed on the Titan III and Dyna-Soar programs at the Martin Company facilities in Denver, Colorado.

1963 October 26---Gemini launch vehicle 1 arrived at Atlantic Missile Range and was transferred to complex 19. Stage I was erected in the complete vehicle erector October 28, stage II in the second stage erector October 29. The two stages were cabled together in the side-by-side configuration required for the Sequence Compatibility Firing scheduled for mid-December. A limited Electronic-Electrical Interference Test was completed November 7, and power was applied to the vehicle November 13.

1963 November 1---20:15 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-25 Research and development / Pod T test / plume study mission Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Titan II development flight N-25 was launched from the Atlantic Missile Range. It carried the oxidizer surge chamber and fuel accumulator kit intended to reduce the amplitude of longitudinal vibration which had characterized earlier flights. NASA regarded 0.25g as the maximum level tolerable in manned space flight; this flight achieved a level of 0.22g, the first to fall within acceptable limits. Although the kit had been tested on only one flight, Gemini Project Office had sufficient confidence in it to decide, on November 6, to procure several more such kits for subsequent installation in Gemini launch vehicles. Two later Titan II development flights (N-29 on December 12, 1963, and N-31 on January 15, 1964) and the flight of Gemini-Titan 1 confirmed the validity of this decision. The required kits for the remaining Gemini launch vehicles were then procured.

1963 November 9---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-27 Research and development test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 November 13---Gemini launch schedules reexamined. Flight: Gemini 3. The Gemini Management Panel, after reviewing the status of spacecraft and launch vehicle, decided that Gemini launch schedules need reexamination, especially the amount of testing at Cape Canaveral necessary to establish confidence in mission success. Additional Details: Gemini launch schedules reexamined..

1963 November 14---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-68 Demonstration and shakedown operations launch Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1963 November 16---Flight Crew Support Division reported an agreement with Flight Operations Division on a flight profile and rendezvous evaluation experiment for the Gemini-Titan 4 mission. Flight: Gemini 4. Objective of the experiment was to stimulate normal Agena/Gemini rendezvous and to repeat part of the maneuver using loss of signal/manual technique. Basically, the mission would use circular phasing and catch-up orbit as proposed by the Flight Crew Support Division. Exact fuel requirements and ground tracking requirement were under study by Flight Operations Division.

1963 December 3---The Gemini Program Planning Board issued a memorandum of understanding of the correction of the Titan II deficiencies for the Gemini program. This agreement formalized NASA specifications and Air Force plans to clean up problems related to longitudinal oscillations (POGO), combustion instability, and engine improvement. The program to alleviate the POGO effect included ground proof tests of all subsystems modified to control oscillations. Flight tests of the solutions would be flown on Titan II missiles before application to the Gemini launch vehicle. For the combustion stability program, dynamic stability would be demonstrated through the use of artificially produced disturbances, with the engines being flight tested on unmanned vehicles as final proof of man-rating. Engine improvement was a program to correct all design deficiencies that had cropped up during the Titan II development flights.

1963 December 10---Aerojet-General delivered the stage II engine for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 to Martin-Baltimore. The engine was installed December 31. An interim stage I engine was received December 29 and installed January 9, 1964. Additional Details: Aerojet-General delivered the stage II engine for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 to Martin-Baltimore..

1963 December 12---20:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-29 Research and development / Pod T test / plume study mission Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 December 13---Martin-Baltimore received the propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 3 from Martin-Denver, which had begun fabricating them in June. Flight: Gemini 3. Splicing the oxidizer and fuel tanks for each stage was completed April 17, 1964. Flight engines arrived from Aerojet-General on May 10, and installation was completed June 6. Final horizontal tests of the assembled launch vehicle began June 1 and were concluded on June 17 with an Air Force inspection of GLV-3 before the vehicle was erected in the vertical test facility.

1963 December 17---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-28 Research and development / Pod T? test / plume study mission Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 December 31---Gemini launch vehicle 1 completed the Combined Systems Test (CST). The two stages of Gemini launch vehicle 1, standing side by side on complex 19, completed the Combined Systems Test (CST) in preparation for Sequence Compatibility Firing (SCF). CST had been scheduled for December 13 but was delayed by late completion of the complex support systems for operational compatibility with the launch vehicle. Additional Details: Gemini launch vehicle 1 completed the Combined Systems Test (CST)..

1964 January 1---NASA Headquarters directed Gemini Project Office to take the radar and rendezvous evaluation pod out of Gemini-Titan (GT) missions 3 and 4. Spacecraft: Gemini. Flight: Gemini 4, Gemini 5. GT-4 would be a battery-powered long-duration flight. The pod would go on GT-5, and thus the first planned Agena flight would probably slip in the schedule.

1964 January---The program plan for Gemini extravehicular operations was published. Flight: Gemini 5, Gemini 6, Gemini 7, Gemini 8, Gemini 9, Gemini 10, Gemini 11, Gemini 12. Objectives of the operations were to evaluate man's capabilities to perform useful tasks in a space environment, to employ extravehicular operations to augment the basic capability of the spacecraft, and to provide the capability to evaluate advanced extravehicular equipment in support of manned space flight and other national space programs. Additional Details: The program plan for Gemini extravehicular operations was published..

1964 January 15---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-31 Research and development / Pod T test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 January 20---Martin-Baltimore conducted a static test-to-failure of the spacecraft/launch vehicle interface structure. Test results demonstrated a very satisfactory minimum structural margin of 23 percent above ultimate conditions expected to be met in the transonic buffet conditions of launch. Plans were made to hold a structures meeting in Houston on March 17-19, 1964, for final review of all load conditions, stress distribution, and margins, in readiness for the Gemini-Titan 1 mission.

1964 January 23---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-26 Research and development test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 February 5---Gemini launch vehicle 2 stage I and interstage were erected in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Stage II was erected February 7. Subsystems Functional Verification Tests began February 21.

1964 February 17---16:15 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-15 Research and development test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 February 21---Gemini launch vehicle 1 Subsystem Functional Verification Tests (SSFVT) began on complex 19. These repeated the SSFVT performed at Martin-Baltimore in the vertical test facility. Their purpose was to verify the vehicle's readiness to begin systems tests. SSFVT were completed on March 3.

1964 February 26---20:15 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-32 Research and development launch Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 March 5---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1 and spacecraft No. 1 were mechanically mated at complex 19. Before GLV and spacecraft were electrically mated, the launch vehicle's status was reverified with a Combined Systems Test (CST) performed on March 10. A special series of Electronic-Electrical Interference (EEI) Tests began March 12 and ended March 25. Evaluation of test results confirmed that the intent of EEI testing had been accomplished, despite some persistent anomalies. A successful post-EEI systems reverification CST was performed March 27.

1964 March 6---Martin-Baltimore received the propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle 4 from Martin-Denver, which had begun fabricating them in November 1963. Flight: Gemini 4. Tank splicing was completed July 21. Aerojet-General delivered the stage II flight engine June 26, the stage I engine July 28. Engine installation was completed September 4. Final horizontal tests were completed and reviewed October 26, with Martin authorized to erect the vehicle in the vertical test facility.

1964 March 13---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-30 Research and development test Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 March 19---The Air Force Systems Command weekly report (inaugurated in September 1963) summarizing actions taken to resolve Titan II development problems would no longer be issued. George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, informed Associate Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., that the launch vehicle 'no longer appears to be the pacing item in the Gemini program.'

1964 March 24---01:42 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-33 Research and development / Pod T-207 Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 March 31---Electrical and mechanical modification of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 1 airborne components was completed. GLV-1 had been shipped to the Cape equipped with several items to be used only for ground tests. These were replaced with flight units, beginning January 31. The GLV-1 Wet Mock Simulated Launch, a complete countdown exercise including propellant loading, was successfully completed April 2. Testing concluded on April 5 with a Simulated Flight Test.

1964 April 8---16:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-1 / 62-12556 Gemini 1 Mass: 3,187 kg (7,026 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Inclination: 32.60 deg. Period: 89.00 min. The first Gemini mission, Gemini-Titan I, was launched from Complex 19 at Cape Kennedy at 11:00 a.m., e.s.t. This was an unmanned flight, using the first production Gemini spacecraft and a modified Titan II Gemini launch vehicle (GLV). The mission's primary purpose was to verify the structural integrity of the GLV and spacecraft, as well as to demonstrate the GLV's ability to place the spacecraft into a prescribed earth orbit. Mission plans did not include separation of the spacecraft from the second stage of the vehicle, and both were inserted into orbit as a unit six minutes after launch. The planned mission encompassed only the first three orbits and ended about four hours and 50 minutes after liftoff. No recovery was planned for this mission, but Goddard continued to track the spacecraft until it reentered the atmosphere on the 64th orbital pass over the southern Atlantic Ocean (April 12) and disintegrated. The flight qualified the GLV and its systems and the structure of the spacecraft.

1964 April 9---20:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC15. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II N-3A Research and development / Pod RVIP test / plume study mission Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). This Air Force conducted test program contributed significantly to the development of the Gemini launch vehicle; the Gemini malfunction detection system was tested on five flights, Gemini guidance components on three, and the longitudinal oscillation fix on four. In addition to flight testing these (and other) critical components, these flights also enhanced confidence in the use of the Titan II as a launch vehicle. Thirty-two Titan II test flights were analyzed to determine whether any characteristic of the flight would have demanded a Gemini abort; 22 were adjudged successful from the standpoint of a Gemini mission, nine would have required Gemini to abort, and one resulted in a prelaunch shutdown.

1964 April 14---Electrical-Electronic Interference Tests began on Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Oscillograph recorders monitored 20 GLV and aerospace ground equipment (AGE) circuits, five of which displayed anomalies. Two hydraulic switchover cicuits showed voltage transients exceeding failure criteria, but a special test fixed this anomaly in the AGE rather than the GLV.

1964 April 15---After reviewing the results of Gemini-Titan (GT) 1, the Gemini Management Panel remained optimistic that manned flight could be accomplished in 1964. Flight: Gemini 3. According to the work schedule, GT-2 could fly on August 24 and GT-3 on November 16, with comfortable allowances for four-week slips for each mission. Some special attention was devoted to GT-2, where the spacecraft had become the pacing item, a position held by the launch vehicle on GT-1. Spacecraft No. 2 systems tests had started one month late but were proceeding well. In addition, the schedule looked tight for starting spacecraft No. 3 systems tests on June 1.

1964 April 22---The formal Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 was satisfactorily completed in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Three preliminary CSATs (April 17-20) had been completed and all anomalies resolved. Additional Details: The formal Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 was satisfactorily completed in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore..

1964 April 27---The vehicle acceptance team (VAT) for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 convened at Martin-Baltimore. The VAT inspection was completed May 1 with GLV-2 found acceptable. Additional Details: The vehicle acceptance team (VAT) for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 convened at Martin-Baltimore..

1964 May 8---Langley Research Center completed tests on a model of the Gemini launch vehicle to determine the static and dynamic loads imposed on the vehicle and the launch vehicle erector by ground winds. Simulated wind velocities of 5 to 52 miles per hour did not produce loads great enough to be of concern. Tests had begun on April 15.

1964 May 11-12---Primary and backup crews for Gemini-Titan 3 inspected a spacecraft No.3 crew station mock-up at McDonnell. Flight: Gemini 3. They found all major aspects of the crew station acceptable. A few items remained to be corrected but would not affect the launch schedule.

1964 June 5---Three firms received authorization to begin work on space station studies. Spacecraft: MOL. Secretary of the Air Force Eugene M. Zuckert announced that three firms, Douglas Aircraft Company, General Electric Company, and The Martin Company, had received authorization to begin work on space station studies. Zuckert predicted also that the Titan III would be test-flown that summer and would launch the Manned Orbiting Laboratory sometime in 1967 or 1968.

1964 June 8---The entire complement of astronauts began launch abort training on the Ling-Temco-Vought simulator. Flight: Gemini 3. Group 1 (selected April 1959) and Group 2 (September 1962) astronauts averaged approximately 100 runs each whereas Group 3 (October 1963) astronauts completed 32 runs apiece. The Gemini-Titan 3 launch profile was simulated in detail, including such cues as noise, vibration, pitch and roll programming, and other motion cues which results from various launch anomalies. The training was completed July 30.

1964 June 10---Contract with Martin for 15 Gemini launch vehicles (GLV) converted. Air Force Space Systems Division's cost-plus-fixed-fee contract with Martin for 15 Gemini launch vehicles (GLV) and associated aerospace ground equipment was replaced by a cost-plus-incentive-fee contract. Contract negotiations had been conducted between March 15 and April 30, 1964. The final contract contained cost, performance, and schedule incentives. Target cost was $111 million and target fee was $8.88 million. The maximum fee possible under the contract was $16.65 million as against a minimum of $3.33 million. The period of performance under the contract was July 1, 1963, through December 31, 1967, and covered the delivery of 14 GLVs (one GLV had already been delivered) and associated equipment and services, including checkout and launch.

1964 June 12---Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., Assistant Director for Flight Operations, Manned Spacecraft Center, reported that three basic plans were under study for rendezvous missions. Flight: Gemini 6. Rendezvous at first apogee would probably be rejected because of possible dispersions which might necessitate plane changes. Rendezvous from concentric orbits seemed to be desirable because of the freedom in selection of the geographic position of rendezvous. Major work thus far, however, had been expended on the tangential rendezvous. Subsequently, the concentric orbit plan was chosen for Gemini-Titan 6, the first rendezvous mission.

1964 June 17---Contract with Aerojet-General for engines and related aerospace ground equipment revised. Air Force Space Systems Division's cost-plus-fixed-fee contract with Aerojet-General for engines and related aerospace ground equipment for the Gemini launch vehicle was replaced by a cost-plus-incentive-fee contract. Contract negotiations had been conducted between May 25 and June 17, 1964. The final contract covered the procurement of 14 sets of engines (one set had already been delivered) and associated equipment during the period from July 1, 1963, through December 31, 1967. Cost, performance, and schedule incentives made possible a maximum fee of $5,885,250 versus a minimum fee of $1,177,050. The initial target cost was $39,235,000 with a target fee of $3,138,800.

1964 June 19---Stage I of Gemini launch vehicle 3 was erected in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 3. Stage II was erected June 22. Power was first applied June 29, and subsystems functional verification testing concluded July 31.

1964 June 25---Martin-Baltimore received the propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 5 from Martin-Denver, which had begun fabrication in October 1963. Flight: Gemini 5. Aerojet-General delivered the flight engines for GLV-5 November 5. Tank splicing was completed December 5; engine installation December 9. Final horizontal tests were completed January 7, 1965.

1964 July 3---Gemini spacecraft 2 began the second phase of Spacecraft Systems Tests. Following the successful mating of its modules, Gemini spacecraft No. 2 began the second phase of Spacecraft Systems Tests (SST) at McDonnell. SST continued through September. During August and September, test operations alternated with the receipt and installation of a number of flight items in the spacecraft. Additional Details: Gemini spacecraft 2 began the second phase of Spacecraft Systems Tests..

1964 July 10---Manager Charles W. Mathews reported that the Gemini Program Office had been reviewing and evaluating plans for Gemini-Titan (GT) missions 4 through 7. Spacecraft: Gemini. Flight: Gemini 4, Gemini 5, Gemini 6. GT-4 would be a four-day mission using battery power. Additional Details: Manager Charles W. Mathews reported that the Gemini Program Office had been reviewing and evaluating plans for Gemini-Titan (GT) missions 4 through 7..

1964 July 11---Gemini launch vehicle 2 arrived at Eastern Test Range. Stage I was erected at complex 19 on July 13, stage II on July 14. Electrical power was applied to the vehicle on July 20 in preparation for Subsystems Functional Verification Tests, which began July 21.

1964 July 10-25---Gemini Program Office reported that tests had been conducted on section I of the fuel cells planned for the long-duration Gemini-Titan 5 mission. Spacecraft: Gemini. Flight: Gemini 5. These tests had resulted in a failure characterized by output decay. A complete investigation was in process to determine the cause of the failure.

1964 July 27---McDivitt and White II named for the Gemini-Titan 4 mission. Flight: Gemini 4. Astronauts James A. McDivitt and Edward H. White II were named as command pilot and pilot, respectively, for the Gemini-Titan (GT) 4 mission scheduled for the first quarter of 1965. The backup crew for the mission would be Frank Borman, command pilot, and James A. Lovell, Jr., pilot. Additional Details: McDivitt and White II named for the Gemini-Titan 4 mission..

1964 July 30---Gemini missions beyond the 12 originally planned considered. In response to a request from NASA Headquarters, Gemini Program Office (GPO) provided a study for Gemini missions beyond the 12 originally planned. 'The Advanced Gemini Missions Conceptual Study' described 16 further missions, including a space station experiment, a satellite chaser mission, a lifeboat rescue mission, and both a circumlunar and lunar orbiting mission. On February 28, 1965, GPO reported that a preliminary proposal for Gemini follow-on missions to test the land landing system had not been approved. Spare Gemini launch vehicles 13, 14, and 15 were canceled, and there were no current plans for Gemini missions beyond the approved 12-flight program.

1964 July 30---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-28 Cobra Skin Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Demonstration and shakedown operations launch

1964 August 7---The formal Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 3 was successfully performed. Flight: Gemini 3. The vehicle acceptance team (VAT) met August 17 to review CSAT and other test and manufacturing data. Additional Details: The formal Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 3 was successfully performed..

1964 August 11---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-9 Double Talley Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Demonstration and shakedown operations launch

1964 August 13---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-7 Gentle Annie Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Demonstration and shakedown operations launch

1964 August 16---Martin-Baltimore received the propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle 6 from Martin-Denver, which had begun fabricating them in April. Flight: Gemini 6. After being inspected, the tanks were placed in storage where they remained until December 18.

1964 August 17---A severe electrical storm in the vicinity of complex 19 interrupted testing of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2. Several observers reported a lightning strike at or near complex 19. Additional Details: A severe electrical storm in the vicinity of complex 19 interrupted testing of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2..

1964 August 27---Hurricane Cleo struck the Cape Kennedy area. Stage II of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 was deerected and stored; the erector was lowered to horizontal, and stage I was lashed in its vertical position. Stage II was reerected September 1. Power was applied to the launch vehicle September 2, and Subsystem Functional Verification Tests (SSFVT) began September 3. When forecasts indicated that Hurricane Dora would strike Cape Kennedy, both stages of GLV-2 were deerected on September 8 and secured in the Missile Assembly Building. Hurricane Ethel subsequently threatened the area, and both stages remained in the hanger until September 14, when they were returned to complex 19 and reerected. SSFVT, begun again on September 18, ended successfully October 5.

1964 September 1---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 3A . Titan IIIA 3A-2 FAILURE: Transtage pressurization failure caused premature shutdown. Titan 3A Transtage 1 Agency: USAF.

1964 September 4---Air Force Space Systems Division (SSD), supported by launch vehicle contractors, recommended that Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 be flown as scheduled. Manned Spacecraft Center had proposed dropping GLV-2 from the Gemini program because of possible ill effects resulting from the electromagnetic incident of August 17 and from Hurricane Cleo. GLV-3 would then be substituted for the second Gemini mission, and the program would be shortened by one flight. After reviewing the incidents, their effects, corrective action, and retesting, SSD, Martin, Aerospace, and Aerojet-General all felt GLV-2 should fly, and NASA accepted their recommendation.

1964 September 13---Final mating of Gemini spacecraft No. 3 modules began at McDonnell. Flight: Gemini 3. Mating operations were completed September 27. Additional Details: Final mating of Gemini spacecraft No. 3 modules began at McDonnell..

1964 September 21---Spacecraft No. 2 arrived at Cape Kennedy and was installed in the Cryogenic Building of the Merritt Island Launch Area Fluid Test Complex. There it was inspected and connected to aerospace ground equipment (AGE), and hypergolic and cryogenic servicing was performed. Additional Details: Spacecraft No. 2 arrived at Cape Kennedy and was installed in the Cryogenic Building of the Merritt Island Launch Area Fluid Test Complex..

1964 September 23---Manned Spacecraft Center announced at a Trajectories and Orbit Panel meeting that several changes in the ground rules had been made to the Gemini-Titan 6 mission plan. Flight: Gemini 6. One change concerned a previous assumption of a 20-day Agena lifetime; it was now established that the Agena would not be modified to provide this. As a result, greater emphasis had to be placed on ensuring spacecraft launch on the same day as the Agena, primarily by relieving the constraint of no Agena maneuvers. The restriction on using Agena maneuvers had been removed to increase the probability of achieving rendezvous within the few days that the Agena would remain an acceptable target.

1964 September 29---Gemini Program Manager Charles W. Mathews presented the Gemini Management Panel with the new flight schedule resulting from the lightning strike and hurricane conditions. Flight: Gemini 3, Gemini 4. The schedule was as follows: Gemini-Titan (GT) 2, November 17; GT-3, January 30, 1965; and GT-4, April 12. For GT-4 through GT-7, three-month launch intervals were planned; for the remainder of the program, these intervals would be reduced to two and one half months.

1964 September 29---Fuel cells and batteries were discussed as power sources for the Gemini-Titan (GT) 5 mission (long-duration) at a meeting of the Gemini Management Panel. Spacecraft: Gemini. Flight: Gemini 4, Gemini 5. A study was reviewed that proposed a combination to be used in the following manner: batteries would be used during peak load requirements; the fuel cell would supply the remaining mission power source requirements. The panal accepted the proposal, and McDonnell was directed to proceed with the plan. In addition, the group decided to remove the fuel cell from GT-4 and substitute batteries, pending the concurrence of NASA Headquarters. It also decided to fly older versions of the fuel cell in GT-2 (the redesigned version would be flown in the later manned flights) to gain flight experience with the component. Additional Details: Fuel cells and batteries were discussed as power sources for the Gemini-Titan (GT) 5 mission (long-duration) at a meeting of the Gemini Management Panel..

1964 October 2---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-1 Black Widow Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Demonstration and shakedown operations launch

1964 October 6---The Prespacecraft Mate Combined Systems Test (CST) of Gemini launch vehicle 2 was completed at complex 19. This test, similar to CST performed at the Martin plant, comprised an abbreviated countdown and simulation of flight events, with a simulator representing electrical characteristics of the spacecraft; its purpose was to establish confidence in the launch vehicle. Electrical Electronic Interference Tests were completed October 12. Hurricane Isbell threatened the area on October 14-15, but its path was far enough south of the Cape to make deerection unnecessary, though testing was curtailed.

1964 October 7---The vehicle acceptance team for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 3 met for the second time to review test and manufacturing data at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 3. The meeting concluded on October 9 with the vehicle found acceptable and Martin was authorized to remove it from the vertical test cell. After final checks, weighing, and balancing, GLV-3 passed roll-out inspection on October 27 and was turned over to the Air Force. Air Force Space Systems Division formally accepted GLV-3, following a review of launch vehicle status and correction of discrepancy items.

1964 October 17---Flight Crew Support Division reported that the Gemini-Titan (GT) 3 primary crew had completed egress practice in boilerplate No. Spacecraft: Gemini. Flight: Gemini 3, Gemini 4. 201 in the Ellington Air Force Base flotation tank. The backup GT-4 crew was scheduled for such training on October 23. Full-scale egress and recovery training for both the GT-3 and the GT-4 crews was scheduled to begin about January 15, when parachute refresher courses would also be scheduled.

1964 October 28---Gemini launch vehicle 4 was erected in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 4. Power was applied to the vehicle for the first time on November 4. Subsystems Functional Verification Tests were completed November 19.

1964 November 4---17:00 GMT---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-32 High Rider Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Demonstration and shakedown operations launch

1964 November 17---Gemini launch vehicle 2 and spacecraft No. 2 were electrically mated at complex 19. The Joint Combined Systems Test was run the following day. Additional Details: Gemini launch vehicle 2 and spacecraft No. 2 were electrically mated at complex 19..

1964 November 24---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 3 was scheduled to be shipped from Martin-Baltimore to Cape Kennedy. Flight: Gemini 3. Shipment was delayed, however, because GLV-2 had not yet been launched; and several modifications, scheduled for the Cape, were made at Baltimore instead. All work was completed by January 14, 1965; the vehicle was reinspected and was again available for delivery. Preparations for shipment were completed January 20, and stage II was airlifted to Cape Kennedy January 21, followed by stage I January 23.

1964 November 24---Gemini-Titan 2 completed the Wet Mock Simulated Launch. Flight: Gemini 3. Gemini-Titan (GT) 2 successfully completed the Wet Mock Simulated Launch, a full-scale countdown exercise which included propellant loading. Procedures for flight crew suiting and spacecraft ingress were practiced during simulated launch. Additional Details: Gemini-Titan 2 completed the Wet Mock Simulated Launch..

1964 November 25---The Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 4 was conducted. Flight: Gemini 4. The vehicle acceptance team inspected the vehicle and reviewed all test and manufacturing data December 11-13 and authorized Martin to remove GLV-4 from the vertical test cell. During the next three months, while awaiting shipment to Cape Kennedy, GLV-4 had 27 engineering changes installed. Final integrity checks, weighing, and balancing were completed March 8, 1965.

1964 November 30---Astronauts James McDivitt and Edward White, command pilot and pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 mission, began crew training on Gemini mission simulator No. Flight: Gemini 4. 2 in Houston. The initial week of training was devoted to familiarizing the crew with the interior of the spacecraft.

1964 December 8---Vandenberg 395-A1. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-85 ST West Wind I operational test launch Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 December 9---Gemini-Titan (GT) 2 launch attempt. Gemini-Titan (GT) 2 launch countdown began at 4:00 a.m., e.s.t., and proceeded normally, with minor holds, until about one second after engine ignition. At that point a shutdown signal from the master operations control set (MOCS) terminated the launch attempt. Loss of hydraulic pressure in the primary guidance and control system of stage I of the launch vehicle caused an automatic switchover to the secondary guidance and control system. During the 3.2-second holddown following ignition command, switchover was instrumented as a shutdown command. Accordingly, the MOCS killed the launch attempt. Subsequent investigation disclosed that loss of hydraulic pressure had been caused by failure of the primary servo-valve in one of the four tandem actuators which control movement of the stage I thrust chambers. All four stage I tandem actuators were replaced with redesigned actuators.

1964 December 9---Mission Control Center at Houston used passively in the Gemini-Titan 2 launch attempt. The Mission Control Center at Houston was used passively and in parallel with the Mission Control Center at the Cape in the Gemini-Titan 2 launch attempt, primarily to validate the computer launch programs. In addition, considerable use was made of the telemetry processing program and related television display formats. The Houston control center received, processed, and displayed live and simulated Gemini launch vehicle and spacecraft data. Test results were considered very successful.

1964 December 10---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 3A . Titan IIIA 3A-1 Titan 3A Transtage 2 Mass: 4,077 kg (8,988 lb). Agency: USAF. Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 32.10 deg. Period: 88.00 min. Launch vehicle test. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1964 December 15---The Gemini Phase II centrifuge training program was completed. Flight: Gemini 3, Gemini 4. Phase II provided refresher training for Gemini-Titan 3 and 4 flight crews, who made their runs clad in pressure suits. For astronauts not yet officially assigned to a mission the program provided familiarization training under shirt-sleeve conditions. Phase II had begun early in November.

1964 December 18---Martin-Baltimore removed the propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 from storage. Flight: Gemini 6. Cleaning the tanks and purging them with nitrogen was completed February 5, 1965. Aerojet-General delivered the flight engines for GLV-6 February 1. Tank splicing was completed February 23, engine installation, February 25. GLV-6 horizontal testing was completed April 3.

1965 January 5---NASA Headquarters provided Flight Operations Division with preliminary data for revising the Gemini-Titan (GT) 3 flight plan to cover the possibility of retrorocket failure. Flight: Gemini 3, Gemini 4. The problem was to ensure the safe reentry of the astronauts even should it become impossible to fire the retrorockets effectively. The Headquarters proposal incorporated three orbit attitude and maneuver system maneuvers to establish a fail-safe orbit from which the spacecraft would reenter the atmosphere whether the retrorockets fired or not. This proposal, as refined by Mission Planning and Analysis Division, became part of the flight plans for GT-3 and GT-4.

1965 January 6---Redesigned stage I tandem actuators were received and installed in Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2. Although some retesting began shortly after the Gemini-Titan 2 mission was scrubbed on December 9, 1964, most activity in preparing GLV-2 for another launch attempt was curtailed until the new actuators arrived. Subsystems retesting then began. The final combined systems test---the Simulated Flight Test---was completed January 14, with launch scheduled for January 19.

1965 January 12---Flight tests of the zero-gravity mock-up of the Gemini spacecraft began. Flight: Gemini 4. The mock-up was installed in a KC-135 aircraft to provide astronauts with the opportunity to practice extravehicular activities under weightless conditions. The Gemini-Titan (GT) 3 flight crew participated in the opening exercises, which were duplicated the next day by the GT-4 flight crew.

1965 January 14---A task force in the Office of Manned Space Flight finished a two-month study to determine the requirements for reducing the interval between Gemini flights from three to two months. Flight: Gemini 6. The findings and recommendations were presented to George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, on January 19. Additional Details: A task force in the Office of Manned Space Flight finished a two-month study to determine the requirements for reducing the interval between Gemini flights from three to two months..

1965 January 14---12:00 GMT---Vandenberg 395-A3. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-33 ST West Wind III operational test launch Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 January 19---Built-in holds in the GLV/Gemini countdown. The study of 325 missile countdowns, 205 missile launches, as well as all Titan scrubs and holds, indicated that GLV launching would be considerably improved and a great many scrubs precluded by the addition of such holds.

1965 January 19---14:04 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-2 Gemini 2 Agency: NASA. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). During the countdown for Gemini-Titan (GT) 2, the fuel cell hydrogen inlet valve failed to open. Efforts to correct the problem continued until it was determined that freeing the valve would delay the countdown. Work on the fuel cell ceased, and it was not activated for the flight. The fuel cell installed in spacecraft No. 2 was not a current flight design. When fuel cell design was changed in January 1964, several cells of earlier design were available. Although these cells were known to have some defects, flight testing with the reactant supply system was felt to be extremely desirable. Accordingly, it was decided to fly the entire system on GT-2, but only on a "non-interference with flight" basis. When it became clear that correcting the problem that emerged during the GT-2 countdown would cause delay, fuel cell activation for the flight was called off.

1965 January 20---Gemini 1 Kamanin observes that Gemini 1 was sent with mannequins on a suborbital trajectory, splashing down 3400 km from Cape Canaveral after 20 minutes of flight. He cannot believe this trajectory was intentional; the Soviets only fly mannequins aboard flights with the same duration as the planned manned mission. Kamanin believes this represents the third failure of the Titan 2 booster. Meanwhile, Soviet capability in centrifuges, is improving, albeit slowly. A centrifuge with a 16-m arm is to be completed by 1970, and one of 7 M in 1966.

1965 January 22---Beale AFB -. Last Titan I ICBM taken off alert status at Beale AFB

1965 January 25---Gemini launch vehicle 3 was erected at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 3. Power was applied January 29 and Subsystems Functional Verification Tests (SSFVT) commenced. SSFVT were finished February 12. The Combined Systems Test before spacecraft mating was conducted February 15-16.

1965 January 29---Qualification testing of the food, water, and waste management systems for the Gemini-Titan 3 mission was completed. Flight: Gemini 3.

1965 February 1---Ellsworth AFB -. Last Titan I ICBM taken off alert status at Ellsworth AFB

1965 February 2---Larson AFB -. Last Titan I ICBM taken off alert status at Larson AFB

1965 February 5---Gemini spacecraft No. 3 was moved to complex 19 and hoisted into position atop Gemini launch vehicle 3. Flight: Gemini 3. Test operations began February 9 with premate systems tests, which lasted until February 13. Additional Details: Gemini spacecraft No. 3 was moved to complex 19 and hoisted into position atop Gemini launch vehicle 3..

1965 February 5---Modifications to Gemini launch vehicle 5 were completed and stage I was erected in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 5. Stage II was erected February 8. Power was applied to the vehicle for the first time on February 15, and Subsystems Functional Verification Tests were completed March 8. Another modification period followed.

1965 February 8---Manned Spacecraft Center announced the selection of L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., as command pilot and Charles Conrad, Jr., as pilot for the seven-day Gemini-Titan 5 mission. Flight: Gemini 5. Backup crew would be Neil A. Armstrong and Elliot M. See, Jr.

1965 February 11---15:19 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC20. LV Model: Titan 3A . Titan IIIA 3A-3 LES 1 Mass: 31 kg (68 lb). Spacecraft: LES. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 2,783 km (1,729 mi). Apogee: 2,809 km (1,745 mi). Inclination: 32.10 deg. Period: 145.80 min. Lincoln Experimental Satellite; communications experiments. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1965 February 12---Gemini-Titan (GT) 3 mission might be flown between March 22 and 25, 1965. Flight: Gemini 4. Director of Flight Operations Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., told the Manned Spacecraft Center senior staff that the Gemini-Titan (GT) 3 mission might be flown between March 22 and 25, although it was officially scheduled for the second quarter of 1965. In addition, the Houston control center was being considered for use in the GT-4 mission.

1965 February 17---Gemini launch vehicle 3 and spacecraft No. 3 were mechanically mated on complex 19. Flight: Gemini 3. The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation Test was completed February 19, the Joint Guidance and Control Test on February 22. Gemini-Titan 3 combined systems testing included the Joint Combined Systems Test on February 24 and the Flight Configuration Mode Test on March 3.

1965 February 21---Gemini-Titan 3 crew egress training. Flight: Gemini 3. During the week, the Gemini-Titan 3 prime crew participated in egress training from static article No. 5 in the Gulf of Mexico. A Additional Details: Gemini-Titan 3 crew egress training..

1965 February 25---Martin-Denver delivered propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 7 to Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 7. Tank fabrication had begun in May 1964. Martin-Baltimore recleaned and purged the tanks with nitrogen by April 20, 1965. In the meantime, flight engines for GLV-7 arrived from Aerojet-General on April 17. Tank splicing was completed May 6 and engine installation May 20. All horizontal testing was completed June 14. A modification period followed.

1965 February 26---A full-scale rehearsal of the flight crew countdown for Gemini-Titan 3 was conducted at the launch site. Flight: Gemini 3. Procedures were carried out for moving the flight crew from their quarters in the Manned Spacecraft Center operations building at Merritt Island to the pilot's ready room at complex 16 at Cape Kennedy. Complete flight crew suiting operation in the ready room, the transfer to complex 19, and crew ingress into the spacecraft were practiced. Practice countdown proceeded smoothly and indicated that equipment and procedures were flight ready.

1965 March 1-2---Office of Manned Space Flight held the Gemini manned space flight design certification review in Washington. Flight: Gemini 3. Chief executives of all major Gemini contractors certified the readiness of their products for manned space flight. Gemini-Titan 3 was ready for launch as soon as the planned test and checkout procedures at Cape Kennedy were completed.

1965 March 5---Vandenberg 395-A2. LV Model: Titan 1 . Titan I SM-80 ST West Wind II operational test launch Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Last launch of a Titan I from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 3 May 1961).

1965 March 8---The Wet Mock Simulated Launch of Gemini-Titan 3 was successfully conducted. Flight: Gemini 3. Countdown exercises were concluded on March 18 with the Simulated Flight Test.

1965 March 10---The official roll-out inspection of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 4 was conducted at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 4. Air Force Space Systems Division formally accepted delivery of the vehicle March 21, and preparations to ship it to Cape Kennedy began at once. GLV-4 stage I arrived at the Cape March 22, followed the next day by stage II.

1965 March 10---Air Force Space Systems Division repeated its position that on Gemini-Titan 6 the nominal plan should not call for use in orbit of the Agena primary propulsion system. Flight: Gemini 6. At a meeting of the Gemini Trajectory and Orbits Panel, Air Force Space Systems Division repeated its position that on Gemini-Titan 6 the nominal plan should not call for use in orbit of the Agena primary propulsion system, since it would not be qualified in actual flight before this mission. Additional Details: Air Force Space Systems Division repeated its position that on Gemini-Titan 6 the nominal plan should not call for use in orbit of the Agena primary propulsion system..

1965 March 23-24---Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) Management-Technical Review. Flight: Gemini 12, Gemini 3. Representatives of Air Force Space Systems Division (SSD), Aerospace, Lockheed, and Gemini Program Office met at Sunnyvale for the monthly Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) Management-Technical Review. Additional Details: Gemini Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) Management-Technical Review..

1965 March 23---14:24 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-3 / 62-12558 Gemini 3 Mass: 3,225 kg (7,109 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 33.00 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Crew: Grissom, Young. Flight: Gemini 3. First manned test flight of Gemini. Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young entered an elliptical orbit about the earth. After three orbits, the pair manually landed their spacecraft in the Atlantic Ocean, thus performing the first controlled reentry. Unfortunately, they landed much farther from the landing zone than anticipated, about 97 km (60 miles) from the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Intrepid. But otherwise the mission was highly successful. Gemini III, America's first two-manned space mission, also was the first manned vehicle that was maneuverable. Grissom used the vehicle's maneuvering rockets to effect orbital and plane changes. Grissom wanted to name the spacecraft 'Molly Brown' (as in the Unsinkable, a Debbie Reynolds/Howard Keel screen musical). NASA was not amused and stopped allowing the astronauts to name their spacecraft (until forced to when having two spacecraft aloft at once during the Apollo missions). The flight by Young was the first of an astronaut outside of the original seven. Young, who created a media flap by taking a corned beef sandwich aboard as a prank, would go on to fly to the moon on Apollo and the Space Shuttle on its first flight sixteen years later.

1965 March 25---02:15 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-60 Arctic Sun operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 March 26---Lowry AFB -. Last Titan I ICBM taken off alert status at Lowry AFB

1965 March 26---Lowry AFB -. Last Titan I ICBM taken off alert status at Lowry AFB

1965 March 29---Full EVA considered for Gemini 4. Spacecraft: G4C. Flight: Gemini 4. The possibility of doing more than the previously planned stand-up form of extravehicular activity (EVA) was introduced at an informal meeting in the office of Director Robert R. Gilruth at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Present at the meeting, in addition to Gilruth and Deputy Director George M. Low, were Richard S. Johnston of Crew Systems Division (CSD) and Warren J. North of Flight Crew Operations Division. Johnston presented a mock-up of an EVA chestpack, as well as a prototype hand-held maneuvering unit. North expressed his division's confidence that an umbilical EVA could be successfully achieved on the Gemini-Titan 4 mission. Receiving a go-ahead from Gilruth, CSD briefed George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator for Mannned Space Flight, on April 3 in Washington. He, in turn, briefed the Headquarters Directorates. The relevant MSC divisions were given tentative approval to continue the preparations and training required for the operation. Associate Administrator of NASA, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., visited MSC for further briefing on May 14. The enthusiasm he carried back to Washington regarding flight-readiness soon prompted final Headquarters approval.

1965 March 29---Gemini launch vehicle 4 was erected at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 4. After the vehicle had been inspected, umbilicals were connected March 31 and power applied April 2. Subsystems Functional Verification Tests began immediately and were completed April 15. The Prespacecraft Mate Combined Systems Test was conducted the next day (April 16).

1965 April 1---Mountain Home AFB -. Last Titan I ICBM taken off alert status at Mountain Home AFB

Spring 1966---Titan I missiles in storage at Mira Loma Air Force Station, Riverside County, California, are scrapped.

1965 April 5---Schirra and Stafford selected for Gemini-Titan 6. Flight: Gemini 6. Manned Spacecraft Center announced that Walter M. Schirra, Jr., and Thomas P. Stafford had been selected as command pilot and pilot for Gemini-Titan 6, the first Gemini rendezvous and docking mission. Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young would be the backup crew.

1965 April 14-15---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 was erected in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 6. GLV-6 was the first vehicle in the new west test cell, which Martin had finished installing and checking out in January. Additional Details: Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 was erected in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore..

1965 April 15---Martin-Denver delivered the propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle 8 to Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 8. Tank fabrication had begun September 25, 1964. Aerojet-General delivered the stage I engine on June 16 and the stage II on August 20. In the meantime, tank splicing was completed August 3. Engine installation was completed September 23, and all hoizontal testing ended September 27.

1965 April 16---19:19 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-45 Bear Hug operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 April 18---By this date all Titan I missiles had been shipped to storage at Mira Loma Air Force Station, Riverside County, California.

1965 April 21---The Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 5 was conducted in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 5. Four earlier CSAT attempts (April 15-20) were marred by numerous minor anomalies. The vehicle acceptance team inspection began April 26 and concluded April 30, with GLV-5 found acceptable. The vehicle was removed from the test cell May 7-8, formally accepted by the Air Force May 15, and shipped to Cape Kennedy. Stage I arrived at the Cape on May 17 and stage II on May 19.

1965 April 22---The Abort Panel met to review abort criteria for Gemini-Titan (GT) 4 and decided that GT-3 rules would suffice. Flight: Gemini 4, Gemini 5. Alternate procedures for delayed mode 2 abort would be investigated when the Manned Spacecraft Center abort trainer became available to the GT-5 mission.

1965 April 23---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 4 and spacecraft No. 4 were mechanically mated at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 4. The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test were completed April 26-29. These had been separate tests for earlier vehicles, but from Gemini-Titan 4 on, the tests were combined and performed as one. The spacecraft/GLV Joint Combined Systems Test followed on April 30. The Flight Configuration Mode Test finished systems testing May 7.

1965 April 30---19:05 GMT---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-54 Card Deck operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 May 13---The Wet Mock Simulated Launch (WMSL) of Gemini-Titan (GT) 4 was completed. Flight: Gemini 4. The spacecraft was then demated from the launch vehicle in order to replace the batteries in the spacecraft adapter; flight seats were also installed and crew stowage evaluated. Additional Details: The Wet Mock Simulated Launch (WMSL) of Gemini-Titan (GT) 4 was completed..

1965 May 21---23:53 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-51 Front Sight operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 June 3---15:16 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-4 / 62-12559 Gemini 4 Mass: 3,574 kg (7,879 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 162 km (100 mi). Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Inclination: 32.50 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Crew: McDivitt, White. Flight: Gemini 4. The second manned and first long-duration mission in the Gemini program. Major objectives of the four-day mission were demonstrating and evaluating the performance of spacecraft systems in a long-duration flight and evaluating effects on the crew of prolonged exposure to the space environment. Secondary objectives included demonstrating extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, conducting stationkeeping and rendezvous maneuvers with the second stage of the launch vehicle, performing significant in-plane and out-of-plane maneuvers, demonstrating the ability of the orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS) to back up the retrorockets, and executing 11 experiments. The stationkeeping exercise was terminated at the end of the first revolution because most of the OAMS propellant allocated for the exercise had been used; further efforts would jeopardize primary mission objectives and could mean the cancellation of several secondary objectives. No rendezvous was attempted. The only other major problem to mar the mission was the inadvertent alteration of the computer memory during the 48th revolution in an attempt to correct an apparent malfunction. This made the planned computer-controlled reentry impossible and required an open-loop ballistic reentry. All other mission objectives were met. The flight crew began preparing for EVA immediately after terminating the stationkeeping exercise. Although preparations went smoothly, McDivitt decided to delay EVA for one revolution, both because of the high level of activity required and because deletion of the rendezvous attempt reduced the tightness of the schedule. Ground control approved the decision. The spacecraft hatch was opened at 4 hours 18 minutes into the flight and White exited 12 minutes later, using a hand-held maneuvering gun. White reentered the spacecraft 20 minutes after leaving it. The hatch was closed at 4 hours 54 minutes ground elapsed time. Drifting flight was maintained for the next two and one-half days to conserve propellant. The spacecraft landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 725 km east of Cape Kennedy---some 65 km from its nominal landing point. The crew boarded a helicopter 34 minutes after landing and was transported to the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Wasp. Spacecraft recovery was completed at 2:28 p.m., a little more than 100 hours after Gemini 4 had been launched. Gemini 4 was the first mission to be controlled from the mission control center in Houston.

The space walk was hurriedly included after the Russian first in Voskhod 2. White seemed to have a lot more fun than Leonov and McDivitt took the pictures that came to symbolize man in space. With this flight the US finally started to match Russian flight durations.

1965 June 7---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 5 was erected at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 5. The vehicle was inspected and umbilicals connected June 9. Additional Details: Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 5 was erected at complex 19..

1965 June 14---13:31 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-22 Gold Fish operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 June 18---14:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-7 Titan 3C Transtage 5 Mass: 9,694 kg (21,371 lb). Agency: USAF. Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Apogee: 191 km (118 mi). Inclination: 32.10 deg. Period: 88.10 min. Launch vehicle test. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1965 June 25---The Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 was completed at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 5. The vehicle acceptance team convened July 6 to review GLV-6 and accepted it July 10. The vehicle was demated on July 19 and formally accepted by the Air Force July 31. Stage II was delivered to Cape Kennedy the same day, and stage I on August 2. Both stages were then placed in storage pending the launch of Gemini-Titan 5.

1965 June 25---Stage I of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 7 was erected in the east cell of the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 7. Stage II was erected June 28. GLV-7 was inspected and prepared for testing while GLV-6 was undergoing vertical tests in the west cell. Power was applied to GLV-7 for the first time July 26. Subsystems Functional Verification Tests were completed August 25. Systems modification and retesting followed.

1965 June 30---14:29 GMT---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-30 Busy Bee operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 July 7---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 5 and spacecraft No. 5 were mechanically mated at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 5. The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test began immediately and was completed July 9. The spacecraft/GLV Joint Combined Systems Test followed on July 12. The Flight Configuration Mode Test completed systems testing on July 16.

1965 July 21---18:18 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-62 Long Ball operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 July 22---Simultaneous Launch Demonstration (SLD) of Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle and Gemini-Titan (GT) 5. Flight: Gemini 5. A Simultaneous Launch Demonstration (SLD) was conducted between the Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle on complex 14 and Gemini-Titan (GT) 5 on complex 19, in conjunction with the Wet Mock Simulated Launch (WMSL) of GT-5. Additional Details: Simultaneous Launch Demonstration (SLD) of Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle and Gemini-Titan (GT) 5..

1965 July 23---Gemini-Titan (GT) 5 was demated following completion of the Wet Mock Simulated Launch to allow the spacecraft fuel cells to be replaced and the coolant bypass to be modified. Flight: Gemini 5. Spacecraft and launch vehicle were remated August 5. Modified Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and the Joint Guidance and Control Tests were run on August 6. Spacecraft Final Systems Test on August 9-10 and the Simulated Flight Test on August 13 completed prelaunch testing of GT-5, scheduled for launch August 19.

1965 July 26---Circumlunar flight using Gemini seriously studied Spacecraft: Gemini. During a news conference, Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, Deputy Manager of the Gemini Project Office at MSC, affirmed that, although no firm decisions had yet been made, the concept of a circumlunar flight using a Gemini spacecraft was being seriously studied. The mission would use Titan II and III-C launch vehicles and would require rendezvousing in earth orbit. NASA, Martin-Marietta Corporation (builder of the Titan), and Aerojet-General Corporation (which manufactured upper stages for the III-C) all were studying the feasibility of such a flight. Later in the year, NASA Administrator James E. Webb eliminated the possibility of a Gemini circumlunar mission, ". . . our main reliance for operating at lunar distances . . . is the large Saturn V/Apollo system."

1965 August 9---Little Rock AFB -. Accident at Titan 2 Silo 373-4, Little Rock AFB, kills 53. A fire started in the silo during construction work. Two workers survived. The Titan 2 missile was fueled and in the silo but did not explode. The warhead had been removed from the site prior to the start of construction. The complex wass off alert status for the next 13 months during the accident investigation and repairs.

1965 August 16---Martin-Baltimore received propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 9 from Martin-Denver, which had begun fabricating them February 25. Flight: Gemini 9. These were the first GLV tanks to be carried by rail from Denver to Baltimore. All previous tanks had traveled by air, but shortage of suitable aircraft made the change necessary. The tanks were shipped August 9. Aerojet-General delivered the stage I engine for GLV-9 August 20 and the stage II engine September 22. Tank splicing was completed October 21, engine installation November 10. Horizontal testing concluded November 23.

1965 August 16---20:04 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-6 Magic Lamp operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 August 19---A spacecraft computer malfunction caused a hold of the countdown 10 minutes before the scheduled launch of Gemini-Titan 5. Spacecraft: Gemini. Flight: Gemini 5. While the problem was being investigated, thunderstorms approached the Cape Kennedy area. With the computer problem unresolved and the weather deteriorating rapidly, the mission was scrubbed and rescheduled for August 21. Recycling began with unloading propellants.

1965 August 21---14:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-5 / 62-12560 Gemini 5 Mass: 3,605 kg (7,947 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Inclination: 32.60 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Crew: Conrad, Cooper. Flight: Gemini 5. Major objectives of the eight-day mission were evaluating the performance of the rendezvous guidance and navigation system, using a rendezvous evaluation pod (REP), and evaluating the effects of prolonged exposure to the space environment on the flight crew. Secondary objectives included demonstrating controlled reentry guidance, evaluating fuel cell performance, demonstrating all phases of guidance and control system operation needed for a rendezvous mission, evaluating the capability of either pilot to maneuver the spacecraft in orbit to rendezvous, evaluating the performance of rendezvous radar, and executing 17 experiments. The mission proceeded without incident through the first two orbits and the ejection of the REP. About 36 minutes after beginning evaluation of the rendezvous guidance and navigation system, the crew noted that the pressure in the oxygen supply tank of the fuel cell system was falling. Pressure dropped from 850 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) at 26 minutes into the flight until it stabilized at 70 psia at 4 hours 22 minutes, and gradually increased through the remainder of the mission. The spacecraft was powered down and the REP exercise was abandoned. By the seventh revolution, experts on the ground had analyzed the problem and a powering-up procedure was started. During the remainder of the mission the flight plan was continuously scheduled in real time. Four rendezvous radar tests were conducted during the mission, the first in revolution 14 on the second day; the spacecraft rendezvous radar successfully tracked a transponder on the ground at Cape Kennedy. During the third day, a simulated Agena rendezvous was conducted at full electrical load. The simulation comprised four maneuvers---apogee adjust, phase adjust, plane change, and coelliptical maneuver---using the orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS). Main activities through the fourth day of the mission concerned operations and experiments. During the fifth day, OAMS operation became sluggish and thruster No. 7 inoperative. Thruster No. 8 went out the next day, and the rest of the system was gradually becoming more erratic. Limited experimental and operational activities continued through the remainder of the mission. Retrofire was initiated in the 121st revolution during the eighth day of the mission, one revolution early because of threatening weather in the planned recovery area. Reentry and landing were satisfactory, but the landing point was 145 km short, the result of incorrect navigation coordinates transmitted to the spacecraft computer from the ground network. Landing occurred August 29, 190 hours 55 minutes after the mission had begun. The astronauts arrived on board the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Lake Champlain, at 9:25. The spacecraft was recovered at 11:51 a.m.

With this flight, the US finally took the manned spaceflight endurance record from Russia, while demonstrating that the crew could survive in zero gravity for the length of time required for a lunar mission. However the mission was incredibly boring, the spacecraft just drifting to conserve fuel most of the time, and was 'just about the hardest thing I've ever done' according to a hyperactive Pete Conrad. An accident with freeze dried shrimp resulted in the cabin being filled with little pink subsatellites.

1965 August 25---Vandenberg -. MOL to be launched from Canaveral and Vandenberg Spacecraft: MOL. DoD revealed that newly-authorized Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program (announced by President Lyndon Johnson the same day) would be launched from both the Air Force Eastern and Western Test Ranges.

1965 August 26---00:04 GMT---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-19 New Role operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 August 30---Stage I of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 was erected at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 6. Stage II was erected the following day. Umbilicals were connected and inspected September 1, and Subsystems Reverification Tests began September 2. These tests were completed September 15. The Prespacecraft Mate Verification Test of GLV-6 was run September 16.

1965 September 16---Martin-Denver shipped the propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 10 to Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 10, Gemini 11. During the rail trip, leaking battery acid corroded the dome of the stage II fuel tank. The tanks arrived at Martin-Baltimore September 21. The stage II fuel tank was rejected and returned to Denver. It was replaced by the stage II fuel tank from GLV-11, which completed final assembly September 25 and arrived in Baltimore November 3 after being inspected and certified. Fabrication of GLV-10 tanks had begun in April.

1965 September 17---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 and spacecraft No. 6 were mechanically mated at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 6. The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test was completed September 21. The spacecraft/GLV Joint Combined Systems Test was run September 23. GLV tanking test was performed September 29 and the Flight Configuration Mode Test October 1, completing systems testing for Gemini-Titan 6.

1965 September 20---The Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 7 was completed in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 7. Inspection of GLV-7 by the vehicle acceptance team began September 27 and ended October 1, with the vehicle found acceptable. GLV-7 was deerected October 5 and formally accepted by the Air Force October 15. Stage I was airlifted to Cape Kennedy October 16, followed by stage II October 18. Both stages were placed in storage pending the launch of the Gemini VI mission.

1965 September 21---14:04 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-58 Bold Guy operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 September 28---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 8 was erected in the west cell of the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 8. Power was applied to the vehicle October 13, following the deerection of GLV-7. Subsystems Functional Verification Tests of GLV-8 were completed November 4.

1965 October 7---The Wet Mock Simulated Launch (WMSL) of Gemini-Titan (GT) 6 and the Simultaneous Launch Demonstration with GT-6 and the Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle were conducted. Flight: Gemini 6. Following WMSL, the spacecraft and launch vehicle were demated to allow the spacecraft battery to be replaced. They were remated October 8-13. Spacecraft Systems Test was completed October 15. Prelaunch testing concluded October 20 with the Simulated Flight Test.

1965 October 15---17:23 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-4 FAILURE: Partial Failure. LCS 2 Spacecraft: LCS. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 730 km (450 mi). Apogee: 785 km (487 mi). Inclination: 32.30 deg. Period: 99.98 min. Dual launch with OV2-1; upper stage broke up.

1965 October 20---18:09 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-33 Power Box Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Operational missile test. Some lists give launch date as 10 October.

1965 October 28---Gemini spacecraft No. 6 and the second stage of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 were deerected and removed from complex 19. Flight: Gemini 6. GLV-6 stage I was deerected the next day. The GLV was placed in storage at the Satellite Checkout Building under guard, in an environment controlled for temperature and humidity. Bonded storage maintained the integrity of previously conducted tests to reduce testing that would have to be repeated. Spacecraft No. 6 was stored in the Pyrotechnics Installation Building at the Merritt Island Launch Area.

1965 October 29-30---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 7 was erected at complex 19, following the deerection of GLV-6. Flight: Gemini 7. Power was applied to GLV-7 on October 31, and Subsystems Reverification Tests (SSRT) began immediately. SSRT ended November 9, and the Prespacecraft Mate Verification Test was performed November 10. This test now included dropping all umbilicals, eliminating the need for a Flight Configuration Mode Test (FCMT). No FCMT was performed on GLV-7 or any subsequent vehicle.

1965 November 3---Martin-Baltimore received the propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 11 from Martin-Denver, which had began fabricating them June 28. Flight: Gemini 10, Gemini 11. They were shipped by rail October 27. The GLV-11 stage II fuel tank was used in GLV-10, and the stage II fuel tank from GLV-12 was reassigned to GLV-11, arriving by air from Martin-Denver January 16, 1966. Aerojet-General delivered the engines for GLV-11 on December 14, 1965. Stage I tank splicing and engine installation was complete by March 31, stage II by April 5. Stage I horizontal tests ended April 12 and stage II, April 25.

1965 November 8---The Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 8 was conducted at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 8. The vehicle acceptance team convened November 16 and completed its inspection November 19, deeming the vehicle excellent. GLV-8 was deerected December 13-14 and was formally accepted by the Air Force on December 23. Stage I was airlifted to Cape Kennedy on January 4, 1966, followed by stage II on January 6. Both stages were placed in storage.

1965 November 11---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 7 and spacecraft No. 7 were electrically mated at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 7. An electrical interface jumper cable connected the spacecraft, suspended about six feet above stage II, to the GLV. Additional Details: Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 7 and spacecraft No. 7 were electrically mated at complex 19..

1965 November 19---Aerojet-General delivered the stage II engine for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 10 to Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 10, Gemini 11. The stage I engine had been delivered August 23. Martin-Baltimore completed splicing stage I January 12, 1966; stage II splicing, using the fuel tank reassigned from GLV-11, was finished February 2. Engine installation was completed February 7, and stage I horizontal tests February 11. Stage II horizontal testing ended March 2.

1965 November 27---10:00 GMT---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-20 Red Wagon operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 November 30---14:44 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-4 Cross Fire operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1965 December 4---Both stages of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 6 were removed from storage and arrived at complex 19 two hours after the launch of Gemini VII. Spacecraft: G5C. Flight: Gemini 6, Gemini 7. Spacecraft No. 6 was returned to complex 19 on December 5. Within 24 hours after the launch of Gemini VII, both stages of GLV-6 were erected, spacecraft and launch vehicle were mated, and power was applied. Subsystems Reverification Tests were completed December 8. The only major problem was a malfunction of the spacecraft computer memory. The computer was replaced and checked out December 7-8. The Simulated Flight Test, December 8-9, completed prelaunch tests. The launch, initially scheduled for December 13, was rescheduled for December 12.

1965 December 4---19:30 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-7 / 62-12562 Gemini 7 Mass: 3,663 kg (8,075 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Inclination: 28.90 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Crew: Borman, Lovell. Flight: Gemini 6, Gemini 7. Primary objectives of the mission were demonstrating manned orbital flight for approximately 14 days and evaluating the physiological effects of a long-duration flight on the crew. Among the secondary objectives were providing a rendezvous target for the Gemini VI-A spacecraft, stationkeeping with the second stage of the launch vehicle and with spacecraft No. 6, conducting 20 experiments, using lightweight pressure suits, and evaluating the spacecraft reentry guidance capability. All objectives were successfully achieved with the exception of two experiments lost because of equipment failure. Shortly after separation from the launch vehicle, the crew maneuvered the spacecraft to within 60 feet of the second stage and stationkept for about 15 minutes. The exercise was terminated by a separation maneuver, and the spacecraft was powered down in preparation for the 14-day mission. The crew performed five maneuvers during the course of the mission to increase orbital lifetime and place the spacecraft in proper orbit for rendezvous with spacecraft No. 6. Rendezvous was successfully accomplished during the 11th day in orbit, with spacecraft No. 7 serving as a passive target for spacecraft No. 6. About 45 hours into the mission, Lovell removed his pressure suit. He again donned his suit at 148 hours, while Borman removed his. Some 20 hours later Lovell again removed his suit, and both crewmen flew the remainder of the mission without suits, except for the rendezvous and reentry phases. With three exceptions, the spacecraft and its systems performed nominally throughout the entire mission. The delayed-time telemetry playback tape recorder malfunctioned about 201hours after liftoff, resulting in the loss of all delayed-time telemetry data for the remainder of the mission. Two fuel cell stacks showed excessive degradation late in the flight and were taken off the line; the remaining four stacks furnished adequate electrical power until reentry. Two attitude thrusters performed poorly after 283 hours in the mission. Retrofire occurred exactly on time, and reentry and landing were nominal. The spacecraft missed the planned landing point by only 10.3 km miles, touching down on December 18. The crew arrived at the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Wasp, half an hour later. The spacecraft was recovered half an hour after the crew.

Far surpassing the Gemini 5 flight, Gemini 7 set a manned spaceflight endurance record that would endure for years. The incredibly boring mission, was made more uncomfortable by the extensive biosensors. This was somewhat offset by the soft spacesuits (used only once) and permission to spend most of the time in long johns. The monotony was broken just near the end by the rendezvous with Gemini 6.

1965 December 8-10---Gemini launch vehicle 9 was erected in the east cell of the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 9. Power was applied to the launch vehicle for the first time on December 22, and Subsystems Functional Verification Tests were completed January 20, 1966.

1965 December 12---Gemini 6 launch aborted. Flight: Gemini 6. The scheduled launch of Gemini VI-A was aborted when the Master Operations Control Set automatically shut down the Gemini launch vehicle a second after engine ignition because an electrical umbilical connector separated prematurely. The launch was canceled at 9:54 a.m., e.s.t. Emergency procedures delayed raising the erector until 11:28, so the crew was not removed until 11:33 a.m. Launch was rescheduled for December 15. Routine analysis of the engine data, begun immediately after shutdown, revealed decaying thrust in one first stage engine subassembly before shutdown had been commanded. The problem was diagnosed as a restriction in the gas generator circuit of the subassembly, which would have caused shutdown about 1 second later than it actually occurred as a result of the umbilical disconnect. Source of the restriction proved to be a protective dust cap inadvertently left in place in the gas generator oxidizer injector inlet port. The anomalies were corrected and recycling, based on long-prepared contingency plans, proceeded without incident through launch on December 15.

1965 December 15---13:37 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-6 / 62-12561 Gemini 6 Mass: 3,546 kg (7,817 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 258 km (160 mi). Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Inclination: 28.90 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Crew: Schirra, Stafford. Flight: Gemini 6, Gemini 7. The primary objective of the mission, crewed by command pilot Astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr., and pilot Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, was to rendezvous with spacecraft No. 7. Among the secondary objectives were stationkeeping with spacecraft No. 7, evaluating spacecraft reentry guidance capability, testing the visibility of spacecraft No. 7 as a rendezvous target, and conducting three experiments. After the launch vehicle inserted the spacecraft into an 87 by 140 nautical mile orbit, the crew prepared for the maneuvers necessary to achieve rendezvous. Four maneuvers preceded the first radar contact between the two spacecraft. The first maneuver, a height adjustment, came an hour and a half after insertion, at first perigee; a phase adjustment at second apogee, a plane change, and another height adjustment at second perigee followed. The onboard radar was turned on 3 hours into the mission. The first radar lock-on indicated 246 miles between the two spacecraft. The coelliptic maneuver was performed at third apogee, 3 hours 47 minutes after launch. The terminal phase initiation maneuver was performed an hour and a half later. Two midcourse corrections preceded final braking maneuvers at 5 hours 50 minutes into the flight. Rendezvous was technically accomplished and stationkeeping began some 6 minutes later when the two spacecraft were about 120 feet apart and their relative motion had stopped. Stationkeeping maneuvers continued for three and a half orbits at distances from 1 to 300 feet. Spacecraft No. 6 then initiated a separation maneuver and withdrew to a range of about 30 miles. The only major malfunction in spacecraft No. 6 during the mission was the failure of the delayed-time telemetry tape recorder at 20 hours 55 minutes ground elapsed time, which resulted in the loss of all delayed-time telemetry data for the remainder of the mission, some 4 hours and 20 minutes. The flight ended with a nominal reentry and landing in the West Atlantic, just 10 km from the planned landing point, on December 16. The crew remained in the spacecraft, which was recovered an hour later by the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier Wasp.

Gemini 6 was to have been the first flight involving docking with an Agena target/propulsion stage. However the Agena blew up on the way to orbit, and the spacecraft was replaced by Gemini 7 in the launch order.

For lack of a target, NASA decided to have Gemini 6 rendezvous with Gemini 7. This would require a quick one week turnaround of the pad after launch, no problem with Russian equipment but a big accomplishment for the Americans. The first launch attempt was aborted; the Titan II ignited for a moment, then shut down and settled back down on its launch attachments. Schirra waited it out, did not pull the abort handles that would send the man catapulting out of the capsule on their notoriously unreliable ejection seats. The booster was safed; Schirra had saved the mission and the launch three days later went perfectly. The flight went on to achieve the first manned space rendezvous controlled entirely by the self-contained, on-board guidance, control, and navigation system. This system provided the crew of Gemini 6 with attitude, thrusting, and time information needed for them to control the spacecraft during the rendezvous. Under Schirra's typically precise command, the operation was so successful that the rendezvous was complete with fuel consumption only 5% above the planned value to reach 16 m separation from Gemini 7.

1965 December 21---14:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-8 OV2-03 Mass: 193 kg (425 lb). Spacecraft: OV2. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Apogee: 22,846 km (14,195 mi). Inclination: 26.80 deg. Period: 399.30 min. Upper stage separation failed. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1965 December 22---14:10 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-73 Sea Rover operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 January 13---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 8 was erected at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 8. After the vehicle was inspected and umbilicals connected, power was applied January 19. Subsystems Reverification Tests began the following day and lasted until January 31. Additional Details: Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 8 was erected at complex 19..

1966 January 20---Martin-Denver delivered propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 12 to Martin-Baltimore by air. Flight: Gemini 11, Gemini 12. The GLV-12 stage II fuel tank had been reallocated to GLV-11, and GLV-12 used the stage II fuel tank originally assigned to GLV-10, which had been reworked to eliminate the damaged dome that had caused the tank reshuffling. Additional Details: Martin-Denver delivered propellant tanks for Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 12 to Martin-Baltimore by air..

1966 February 3---11:11 GMT---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-87 Winter Ice operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 February 9---The Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 9 was successfully conducted in the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 9. The vehicle acceptance team convened February 14 and concluded its review on February 17 by accepting the vehicle. Deerection of GLV-9 was completed February 25, and the vehicle was formally accepted by the Air Force March 8. Stage I arrived at Cape Kennedy on March 9, stage II on March 10.

1966 February 10---Gemini launch vehicle 8 and spacecraft 8 were electrically mated; the Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test was completed February 14. Flight: Gemini 8. After data from this test were reviewed (February 15), the Joint Combined Systems Test was run February 16.

1966 February 17---The tanking test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 8 was conducted. Flight: Gemini 8. While the launch vehicle was being cleaned up after the test, spacecraft No. 8 Final Systems Test was completed February 23. On February 25, GLV and spacecraft were temporarily mated for an erector-cycling test. The extravehicular support package and life support system were checked out and installed in the spacecraft between February 26 and March 5, while GLV systems were modified and revalidated February 28 to March 3.

1966 February 17---09:45 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-61 Black Hawk operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 February 28---Stage I of Gemini launch vehicle 10 was erected in the east cell of the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 10. After completing horizontal testing March 3, stage II was erected March 7. Power was applied to the vehicle for the first time on March 14. Subsystems Functional Verification Tests were completed April 13.

1966 March 6---Gemini launch vehicle 8 and spacecraft No. 8 were mated for flight at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 8. The Simultaneous Launch Demonstration with the Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle on complex 14 was completed March 9. The Final Simulated Flight Test concluded prelaunch tests on March 10.

1966 March 12---Vandenberg -. Start of construction (site preparation) for SLC-6 Spacecraft: MOL. Start of construction (site preparation) for Space Launch Complex 6 facilities at former Sudden Ranch property.

1966 March 16---16:41 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-8 / 62-12563 Gemini 8 Mass: 3,788 kg (8,351 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Inclination: 28.90 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Crew: Armstrong, Scott. Flight: Gemini 8. The Atlas-Agena target vehicle for the Gemini VIII mission was successfully launched from KSC Launch Complex 14 at 10 a.m. EST March 16. The Gemini VIII spacecraft followed from Launch Complex 19 at 11:41 a.m., with command pilot Neil A. Armstrong and pilot David R. Scott aboard. The spacecraft and its target vehicle rendezvoused and docked, with docking confirmed 6 hours 33 minutes after the spacecraft was launched. This first successful docking with an Agena target vehicle was followed by a major space emergency. About 27 minutes later the spacecraft-Agena combination encountered unexpected roll and yaw motion. A stuck thruster on Gemini put the docked assembly into a wild high speed gyration. Near structural limits and blackout, Armstrong undocked, figuring the problem was in the Agena, which only made it worse. The problem arose again and when the yaw and roll rates became too high the crew shut the main Gemini reaction control system down and activated and used both rings of the reentry control system to reduce the spacecraft rates to zero. This used 75% of that system's fuel. Although the crew wanted to press on with the mission and Scott's planned space walk, ground control ordered an emergency splashdown in the western Pacific during the seventh revolution. The spacecraft landed at 10:23 p.m. EST March 16 and Armstrong and Scott were picked up by the destroyer U.S.S. Mason at 1:37 a.m. EST March 17. Although the flight was cut short by the incident, one of the primary objectives---rendezvous and docking (the first rendezvous of two spacecraft in orbital flight)---was accomplished.

Primary objectives of the scheduled three-day mission were to rendezvous and dock with the Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) and to conduct extravehicular activities. Secondary objectives included rendezvous and docking during the fourth revolution, performing docked maneuvers using the GATV primary propulsion system, executing 10 experiments, conducting docking practice, performing a rerendezvous, evaluating the auxiliary tape memory unit, demonstrating controlled reentry, and parking the GATV in a 220-nautical mile circular orbit. The GATV was inserted into a nominal 161-nautical mile circular orbit, the spacecraft into a nominal 86 by 147-nautical mile elliptical orbit. During the six hours following insertion, the spacecraft completed nine maneuvers to rendezvous with the GATV. Rendezvous phase ended at 5 hours 58 minutes ground elapsed time, with the spacecraft 150 feet from the GATV and no relative motion between the two vehicles. Stationkeeping maneuvers preceded docking, which was accomplished at 6 hours 33 minutes ground elapsed time. A major problem developed 27 minutes after docking, when a spacecraft orbit attitude and maneuver system (OAMS) thruster malfunctioned. The crew undocked from the GATV and managed to bring the spacecraft under control by deactivating the OAMS and using the reentry control system (RCS) to reduce the spacecraft's rapid rotation. Premature use of the RCS, however, required the mission to be terminated early. The retrofire sequence was initiated in the seventh revolution, followed by nominal reentry and landing in a secondary recovery area in the western Pacific Ocean. The spacecraft touched down less than 10 km from the planned landing point. The recovery ship, the destroyer Leonard Mason, picked up both crew and spacecraft some three hours later. Early termination of the mission precluded achieving all mission objectives, but one primary objective---rendezvous and docking---was accomplished. Several secondary objectives were also achieved: rendezvous and docking during the fourth revolution, evaluating the auxiliary tape memory unit, demonstrating controlled reentry, and parking the GATV. Two experiments were partially performed.

1966 March 24---Gemini launch vehicle 9 was removed from storage and erected at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 9. The vehicle was inspected and umbilicals connected by March 28. Power was applied March 29, and the Subsystems Reverification Test (SSRT) began March 30. SSRT concluded April 11. The Prespacecraft Mate Verification Combined Systems Test was completed April 12.

1966 March 25---09:42 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-16 Close Touch operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 April 5---16:20 GMT---Vandenberg 395-D. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-50 Gold Ring operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 April 13---The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test began. Flight: Gemini 9. The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test began after Gemini launch vehicle 9 and spacecraft No. 9 were electrically mated. These activities were completed April 15. The Joint Combined Systems Test was run April 19.

1966 April 14---The Combined Systems Acceptance Test (CSAT) of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 10 was conducted at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 10. The CSAT was followed by a performance data review, completed April 19. The vehicle acceptance team convened April 26 and accepted GLV-10 on April 29. The vehicle was deerected May 2-4 and formally accepted by the Air Force May 18. Stage I was flown to Cape Kennedy the same day, with stage II following May 20. Both stages were transferred to Hanger L where they were purged and pressurized with dry nitrogen and placed in controlled access storage.

1966 April 18---Stage I of Gemini launch vehicle 11 was erected in the west cell of the vertical test facility at Martin-Baltimore. Flight: Gemini 11. After completing horizontal tests April 25, stage II was erected April 29. Power was applied to the vehicle for the first time on May 9, and Subsystems Functional Verification Tests were completed June 8.

1966 April 20---The tanking test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 9 was conducted. Flight: Gemini 11. While the GLV was undergoing post-tanking cleanup, the spacecraft computer and extravehicular systems were retested (April 21-22), pyrotechnics were installed in the spacecraft (April 25), spacecraft final systems tests were run (April 27-28), spacecraft crew stowage was reviewed (April 29), and the astronaut maneuvering unit was reverified (April 30-May 2). Additional Details: The tanking test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 9 was conducted..

1966 April 20---08:44 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-55 Long Light operational test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 May 24---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-91 Silver Bullet Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Follow-on operational missile test

1966 June 3---13:39 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-9 / 62-12564 Gemini 9 Mass: 3,668 kg (8,086 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 28.80 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Crew: Cernan, Stafford. Flight: Gemini 9. At the first launch attempt, while the crew waited buttoned up in the spacecraft on the pad, their Agena docking target field blew up on the way to orbit. NASA decided to use an Atlas to launch an Agena docking collar only. This was called the Augmented Target Docking Adapter. Ths was successfully launched and the Gemini succeeded in rendezvousing with it. However, the ATDA shroud had not completely separated, thus making docking impossible. However three different types of rendezvous were tested with the ATDA. Cernan began his EVA, which was to include flight with a USAF MMU rocket pack but the Gemini suit could not handle heat load of the astronaut's exertions. Cernan's faceplate fogs up, forcing him to blindly grope back into the Gemini hatch after only two hours.

Seventh manned and third rendezvous mission of the Gemini program. Major objectives of the mission were to rendezvous and dock with the augmented target docking adapter (ATDA) and to conduct extravehicular activities (EVA). These objectives were only partially met. After successfully achieving rendezvous during the third revolution---a secondary objective---the crew discovered that the ATDA shroud had failed to separate, precluding docking---a primary objective---as well as docking practice---another secondary objective. The crew was able, however, to achieve other secondary objectives: an equi-period rendezvous, using onboard optical techniques and completed at 6 hours 36 minutes ground elapsed time; and a rendezvous from above, simulating the rendezvous of an Apollo command module with a lunar module in a lower orbit (completed at 21 hours 42 minutes ground elapsed time). Final separation maneuver was performed at 22 hours 59 minutes after liftoff. EVA was postponed because of crew fatigue, and the second day was given over to experiments. The hatch was opened for EVA at 49 hours 23 minutes ground elapsed time. EVA was successful, but one secondary objective---evaluation of the astronaut maneuvering unit (AMU)---was not achieved because Cernan's visor began fogging. The extravehicular life support system apparently became overloaded with moisture when Cernan had to work harder than anticipated to prepare the AMU for donning. Cernan reentered the spacecraft, and the hatch was closed at 51 hours 28 minutes into the flight. The rest of the third day was spent on experiments.

1966 June 7---Gemini launch vehicle 10 was removed from storage and erected at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 10. Umbilicals were connected and power applied June 9. Subsystems Reverification Tests (SSRT) began immediately. SSRT ended June 16, and the Prespacecraft Mate Verification Combined Systems Test was conducted June 17.

1966 June 9---The launch vehicle acceptance test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 11 was conducted. Flight: Gemini 10. The vehicle acceptance team convened June 20 and accepted GLV-11 June 24. The vehicle was deerected June 29 and formally accepted by the Air Force on July 11. Stage I was delivered by air to Cape Kennedy the same day and stage II on July 13. Both stages were transferred to Hanger U where the tanks were purged and pressurized. The stages remained in controlled access storage until the launch pad was revalidated after the launch of Gemini X; revalidation was completed July 21.

1966 June 16---14:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-11 GGTS 1 Mass: 47 kg (103 lb). Spacecraft: GGTS. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 33,663 km (20,917 mi). Apogee: 33,858 km (21,038 mi). Inclination: 4.20 deg. Period: 1,334.00 min. Gravity gradient stabilization tests. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1966 June 20---Gemini launch vehicle 10 and spacecraft No. 10 were electrically mated at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 10. The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test was conducted June 20-21. Following a data review, the Joint Combined Systems Test was run June 23.

1966 June 24---The tanking test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 10 was conducted. Flight: Gemini 10. During the post-tanking cleanup and systems testing of the GLV, spacecraft No. 10 hypergolics were serviced (June 27-28), spacecraft Final Systems Tests were conducted (June 28-July 1), crew stowage was evaluated, and the extravehicular life support system was checked (July 1). Additional Details: The tanking test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 10 was conducted..

1966 June 29---Vandenberg -. Initial launch of a satellite by Titan IIIB/Agena Nation's initial launch of a satellite by a Titan IIIB/Agena space booster (first launch of a Titan III from Vandenberg AFB).

1966 July 18---22:20 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-10 / 62-12565 Gemini 10 Mass: 3,763 kg (8,295 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 28.90 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Crew: Collins, Young. Flight: Gemini 10. Exciting mission with successful docking with Agena, flight up to parking orbit where Gemini 8 Agena is stored. Collins space walks from Gemini to Agena to retrieve micrometeorite package left in space all those months. Loses grip first time, and tumbles head over heels at end of umbilical around Gemini. Package retrieved on second try.

The Gemini X mission began with the launch of the Gemini Atlas-Agena target vehicle from complex 14. The Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) attained a near-circular, 162- by 157-nautical-mile orbit. Spacecraft No. 10 was inserted into a 145- by 86-nautical-mile elliptical orbit. Slant range between the two vehicles was very close to the nominal 1000 miles. Major objective of the mission was achieved during the fourth revolution when the spacecraft rendezvoused with the GATV at 5 hours 23 minutes ground elapsed time and docked with it about 30 minutes later. More spacecraft propellant was used to achieve rendezvous than had been predicted, imposing constraints on the remainder of the mission and requiring the development of an alternate flight plan. As a result, several experiments were not completed, and another secondary objective---docking practice---was not attempted. To conserve fuel and permit remaining objectives to be met, the spacecraft remained docked with the GATV for about 39 hours. During this period, a bending mode test was conducted to determine the dynamics of the docked vehicles, standup extravehicular activties (EVA) were conducted, and several experiments were performed. The GATV primary and secondary propulsion systems were used for six maneuvers to put the docked spacecraft into position for rendezvous with the Gemini VIII GATV as a passive target. The spacecraft undocked at 44 hours 40 minutes ground elapsed time, separated from the GATV, and used its own thrusters to complete the second rendezvous some three hours later. At 48 hours and 42 minutes into the flight, a 39-minute period of umbilical EVA began, which included the retrieval of a micrometorite collection package from the Gemini VIII Agena. The hatch was opened a third time about an hour later to jettison extraneous equipment before reentry. After about three hours of stationkeeping, the spacecraft separated from the GATV. At 51 hours 39 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew performed a true anomaly-adjust maneuver to minimize reentry dispersions resulting from the retrofire maneuver.

1966 July 22---Gemini launch vehicle 11 was removed from storage and erected at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 11. After the vehicle was inspected and umbilicals connected, power was applied July 27, and Subsystems Reverification Tests (SSRT) began. SSRT ended August 4, and the Prespacecraft Mate Verification Combined Systems Test was run the following day.

1966 July 22---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-95 Giant Train Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). ST Test mission

1966 July 29---The launch vehicle acceptance test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 12 was conducted. Flight: Gemini 12. The vehicle acceptance team convened August 9 and accepted the vehicle August 12. GLV-12 was deerected August 17 and formally accepted by the Air Force August 30. Stage I was airlifted to Cape Kennedy the same day. Stage II arrived September 3. Both stages were placed in controlled access storage in Hanger T pending the launch of Gemini XI and the revalidation of the launch pad, completed September 16.

1966 July 29---18:43 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-1 / Agena D 4751 OPS 3014 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Inclination: 94.20 deg. Period: 88.50 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1966 August 8---Gemini launch vehicle 11 and spacecraft No. 11 were electrically mated at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 11. Elecrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test was conducted August 8-9. The Joint Combined Systems Test followed August 11-12.

1966 August 15---The tanking test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 11 was conducted. Flight: Gemini 11. While GLV post-tanking operations were being performed, the Final Systems Tests of spacecraft No. 11 were conducted August 22-23. Spacecraft and GLV were mechanically mated August 24 and erector cycling was tested. The electrical interface was revalidated August 25-29. The Simultaneous Launch Demonstration on August 31 and the Simulated Flight Test on September 1 completed prelaunch testing.

1966 August 26---13:59 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-12 FAILURE: Payload fairing broke up 78 seconds after launch. IDCSP (8) ... IDCSP (14) Spacecraft: IDCSP. Agency: U.S. Air Force. 8 satellites, each weighing 45 kg.

1966 September 12---14:42 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-11 / 62-12566 Gemini 11 Mass: 3,798 kg (8,373 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 161 km (100 mi). Apogee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 28.80 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Crew: Conrad, Gordon. Flight: Gemini 11. More highjinks with Conrad. First orbit docking with Agena, followed by boost up to record 800 km orbit, providing first manned views of earth as sphere. Tether attached by Gordon to Agena in spacewalk and after a lot of effort tethered spacecraft put into slow rotation, creating first artificial microgravity.

The primary objective of the Gemini XI mission was to rendezvous with the Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) during the first revolution and dock. Five maneuvers completed the spacecraft/GATV rendezvous at 1 hour 25 minutes ground elapsed time, and the two vehicles docked nine minutes later. Secondary objectives included docking practice, extravehicular activity (EVA), 11 experiments, docked maneuvers, a tethered vehicle test, demonstrating automatic reentry, and parking the GATV. All objectives were achieved except one experiment---evaluation of the minimum reaction power tool---which was not performed because umbilical EVA was terminated prematurely. Umbilical EVA began at 24 hours 2 minutes ground elapsed time and ended 33 minutes later. Gordon became fatigued while attaching the tether from the GATV to the spacecraft docking bar. An hour later the hatch was opened to jettison equipment no longer required. At 40 hours 30 minutes after liftoff, the GATV primary propulsion system (PPS) was fired to raise the apogee of the docked vehicles to 741 nautical miles for two revolutions. The PPS was fired again, 3 hours 23 minutes later, to reduce apogee to 164 nautical miles. The crew then prepared for standup EVA, which began at 47 hours 7 minutes into the flight and lasted 2 hours 8 minutes. The spacecraft was then undocked to begin the tether evaluation. At 50 hours 13 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew initiated rotation. Initial oscillations damped out and the combination became very stable after about 20 minutes; the rotational rate was then increased. Again, initial oscillations gradually damped out and the combination stabilized. At about 53 hours into the mission, the crew released the tether, separated from the GATV, and maneuvered the spacecraft to an identical orbit with the target vehicle. A fuel cell stack failed at 54 hours 31 minutes, but the remaining five stacks shared the load and operated satisfactorily. A rerendezvous was accomplished at 66 hours 40 minutes ground elapsed time, and the crew then prepared for reentry.

1966 September 16---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-40 Black River Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Follow-on operational missile test

1966 September 19---Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 12 was removed from storage and erected at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 12. Umbilicals were connected after GLV inspection September 21. Power was applied the next day and Subsystems Reverification Tests (SSRT) began September 23. SSRT ended October 2 and Prespacecraft Mate Verification Combined Systems Test was run October 4.

1966 September 28---19:12 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-2 OPS 4096 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 146 km (90 mi). Apogee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 93.90 deg. Period: 88.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1966 October 5---Gemini launch vehicle 12 and spacecraft No. 12 were electrically mated at complex 19. Flight: Gemini 12. The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test was conducted October 5-6, and data was reviewed the following day. The Joint Combined Systems Test was run on October 10.

1966 October 11---The tanking test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 12 was conducted. Flight: Gemini 12. While the GLV was being cleaned up after the tanking test, the Final Systems Test of spacecraft No. 12 was conducted October 17-19. Spacecraft and GLV were mechanically mated October 25 and the erector was cycled. The spacecraft guidance system was retested October 26-27, and the spacecraft/GLV electrical interface was revalidated October 28. The Simultaneous Launch Demonstration on November 1 and the Simulated Flight Test on November 2 completed prelaunch testing and checkout.

1966 November 3---13:50 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-9 OV4-03 Spacecraft: OV4. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 32.80 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1966 November 11---20:46 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC19. Titan II GLV GT-12 / 62-12567 Gemini 12 Mass: 3,763 kg (8,295 lb). Spacecraft: Gemini. Agency: NASA MSC. Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 28.80 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Crew: Aldrin, Lovell. Flight: Gemini 12. Two very serious astronauts get it all right to end the program. Docked and redocked with Agena, demonstrating various Apollo scenarios including manual rendezvous and docking without assistance from ground control. Aldrin finally demonstrates ability to accomplish EVA without overloading suit by use of suitable restraints and careful movement.

Major objectives of the mission were to rendezvous and dock and to evaluate extravehicular activities (EVA). Among the secondary objectives were tethered vehicle evaluation, experiments, third revolution rendezvous and docking, automatic reentry demonstration, docked maneuvering for a high-apogee excursion, docking practice, systems tests, and Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) parking. The high-apogee excursion was not attempted because an anomaly was noted in the GATV primary propulsion system during insertion, and parking was not attempted because the GATV's attitude control gas was depleted. All other objectives were achieved. Nine spacecraft maneuvers effected rendezvous with the GATV. The onboard radar malfunctioned before the terminal phase initiate maneuver, but the crew used onboard backup procedures to calculate the maneuvers. Rendezvous was achieved at 3 hours 46 minutes ground elapsed time, docking 28 minutes later. Two phasing maneuvers, using the GATV secondary propulsion system, were accomplished, but the primary propulsion system was not used. The first of two periods of standup EVA began at 19 hours 29 minutes into the flight and lasted for 2 hours 29 minutes. During a more than two-hour umbilical EVA which began at 42 hours 48 minutes, Aldrin attached a 100-foot tether from the GATV to the spacecraft docking bar. He spent part of the period at the spacecraft adapter, evaluating various restraint systems and performing various basic tasks. The second standup EVA lasted 55 minutes, ending at 67 hours 1 minute ground elapsed time. The tether evaluation began at 47 hours 23 minutes after liftoff, with the crew undocking from the GATV. The tether tended to remain slack, although the crew believed that the two vehicles did slowly attain gravity-gradient stabilization. The crew jettisoned the docking bar and released the tether at 51 hours 51 minutes. Several spacecraft systems suffered problems during the flight. Two fuel cell stacks failed and had to be shut down, while two others experienced significant loss of power. At 39 hours 30 minutes ground elapsed time, the crew reported that little or no thrust was available from two orbit attitude and maneuver thrusters.

1966 November 24---10:00 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-68 Bubble Girl Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Follow-on operational missile test

1966 December 14---18:14 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-3 OPS 8968 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 147 km (91 mi). Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Inclination: 109.50 deg. Period: 89.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1967 January 18---14:19 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-13 IDCSP 2-1 Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Spacecraft: IDCSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 33,518 km (20,827 mi). Apogee: 33,829 km (21,020 mi). Inclination: 8.70 deg. Period: 1,329.50 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1967 February 24---19:55 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-4 OPS 4204 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Inclination: 107.00 deg. Period: 90.00 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1967 March 17---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-76 Gift Horse Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Follow-on operational missile test

1967 April 12---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-81 Glamour Girl Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Follow-on operational missile test

1967 April 26---18:00 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-5 FAILURE: Stage 2 engine lost thrust. OPS 4243 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: U.S. Air Force. KH-8 type satellite.

1967 April 28---10:01 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-10 Vela 7 Mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Spacecraft: Advanced Vela. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 108,948 km (67,697 mi). Apogee: 112,627 km (69,983 mi). Inclination: 32.10 deg. Period: 6,652.10 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1967 June 20---16:19 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-8 OPS 4282 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 127 km (78 mi). Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Inclination: 111.40 deg. Period: 89.00 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1967 June 23---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-70 Buggy Wheel Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Follow-on operational missile test

1967 July 1---13:15 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-14 IDCSP 3-1 Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Spacecraft: IDCSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 33,030 km (20,520 mi). Apogee: 33,515 km (20,825 mi). Inclination: 11.90 deg. Period: 1,309.60 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1967 August 16---17:02 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-9 OPS 4886 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 123 km (76 mi). Apogee: 445 km (276 mi). Inclination: 111.50 deg. Period: 90.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1967 September 11---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-21 Glowing Bright Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). FOT GB44 Follow-on Test launch

1967 September 19---18:28 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-10 OPS 4941 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 122 km (75 mi). Apogee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 106.00 deg. Period: 89.70 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1967 October 25---19:15 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-11 OPS 4995 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Apogee: 431 km (267 mi). Inclination: 111.50 deg. Period: 90.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1967 December 5---18:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-12 OPS 5000 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 141 km (87 mi). Apogee: 428 km (265 mi). Inclination: 109.50 deg. Period: 90.20 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1968 January 18---19:04 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-13 OPS 5028 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Apogee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 111.50 deg. Period: 89.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1968 February 28---15:00 GMT---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-88 Glory Trip 04T Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). FOT GT04T Follow-on Test launch

1968 March 13---19:55 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-14 OPS 5057 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 128 km (79 mi). Apogee: 407 km (252 mi). Inclination: 99.90 deg. Period: 89.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1968 April 2---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-36 Glory Trip 10T Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). FOT GT10T Follow-on Test launch

1968 April 17---17:00 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-15 OPS 5105 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 127 km (78 mi). Apogee: 421 km (261 mi). Inclination: 111.40 deg. Period: 89.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1968 June 5---17:31 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-16 OPS 5138 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 123 km (76 mi). Apogee: 456 km (283 mi). Inclination: 110.50 deg. Period: 90.30 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1968 June 12---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-82 Glory Trip 08T Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). FOT GT08T Follow-on Test launch

1968 June 13---14:03 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-16 IDCSP 4-1 Mass: 45 kg (99 lb). Spacecraft: IDCSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 33,725 km (20,955 mi). Apogee: 33,850 km (21,030 mi). Inclination: 11.90 deg. Period: 1,335.20 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1968 August 6---16:33 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-17 OPS 5187 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 142 km (88 mi). Apogee: 395 km (245 mi). Inclination: 110.00 deg. Period: 89.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1968 August 21---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-53 Glory Trip 18T Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). FOT GT18T Follow-on Test launch

1968 September 10---18:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-18 OPS 5247 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 125 km (77 mi). Apogee: 404 km (251 mi). Inclination: 106.10 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1968 September 26---07:37 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-5 OV2-05 Mass: 204 kg (449 lb). Spacecraft: OV2. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,113 km (21,818 mi). Apogee: 35,745 km (22,210 mi). Inclination: 12.30 deg. Period: 1,417.90 min. Environmental research. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). As of 22 August 2001 located at 128.37 deg E drifting at 4.618 deg E per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 91.48E drifting at 4.631E degrees per day.

1968 November 6---19:10 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-19 OPS 5296 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Inclination: 106.00 deg. Period: 89.70 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1968 November 19---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-3 Glory Trip 26T Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). FOT GT26T Follow-on Test launch

1968 December 4---19:23 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-20 OPS 6518 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Apogee: 735 km (456 mi). Inclination: 106.20 deg. Period: 93.30 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1969 January 22---19:10 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-6 OPS 7585 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 142 km (88 mi). Apogee: 1,090 km (670 mi). Inclination: 106.20 deg. Period: 97.00 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1969 February 9---21:09 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-17 Tacsat 1 Mass: 730 kg (1,600 lb). Spacecraft: Tacsat. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,939 km (22,331 mi). Apogee: 36,044 km (22,396 mi). Inclination: 1.00 deg. Period: 1,446.60 min. Experimental commsat. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 107 deg W in 1969?-1970; over the Pacific Ocean 173 deg W in 1970; over the Pacific Ocean 179 deg W in 1971-1972; over the Pacific Ocean170 deg E in 1972 Last known longitude (9 June 1995) 176.44 deg E drifting at 0.150 deg E per day.

1969 March 4---19:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-7 OPS 4248 Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Apogee: 461 km (286 mi). Inclination: 92.00 deg. Period: 90.50 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1969 April 15---17:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-21 OPS 5310 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Apogee: 410 km (250 mi). Inclination: 108.80 deg. Period: 90.00 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1969 April 27---First static test firing of Titan 3M SRB. Spacecraft: MOL. First test firing of seven segment solid rocket booster motor for Titan 3M for MOL. The test at Coyote Canyon, California, generated 0.7 million kgf for two minutes.

1969 May 20---Vandenberg 395-B. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-83 Glory Trip 39T Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). FOT GT39T Follow-on Test launch

1969 May 23---07:57 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-15 OV5-05 Mass: 259 kg (570 lb). Spacecraft: OV5. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 59,630 km (37,050 mi). Apogee: 69,130 km (42,950 mi). Inclination: 33.00 deg. Period: 3,121.90 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1969 June 3---16:49 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan IIIB 3B-22 OPS 1077 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Inclination: 110.00 deg. Period: 90.00 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1969 June 10---Vandenberg -. MOL Program cancelled Spacecraft: MOL. Department of Defense announced cancellation of the planned Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program from Space Launch Complex 6 at Vandenberg AFB. The cancellation was expected to save $ 1.5 billion of the projected total $ 3.0 billion program costs. The SLC-6 launch facility at Vandenberg, 90% complete, would be finished and mothballed. MOL reconnaisance systems useful on unmanned satellites would be completed for a total cost of $ 225 million. Ten thousand aerospace workers were laid off as a result of the cancellation.

1969 August 23---16:00 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan 23B 23B-1 (3B-23) OPS 7807 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 138 km (85 mi). Apogee: 377 km (234 mi). Inclination: 108.10 deg. Period: 89.60 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1969 October 24---18:10 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan 23B 23B-2 (3B-24) OPS 8455 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 136 km (84 mi). Apogee: 740 km (450 mi). Inclination: 108.00 deg. Period: 93.40 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1970 January 14---18:43 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan 23B 23B-3 (3B-25) OPS 6531 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Inclination: 110.00 deg. Period: 89.70 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1970 April 8---10:50 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 3C-18 Vela 12 Mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Spacecraft: Advanced Vela. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 101,261 km (62,920 mi). Apogee: 121,227 km (75,326 mi). Inclination: 61.20 deg. Period: 6,691.00 min. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1970 April 15---15:52 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan 23B 23B-4 (3B-26) OPS 2863 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Apogee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 111.00 deg. Period: 89.70 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1970 June 25---14:50 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan 23B 23B-5 (3B-27) OPS 6820 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 144 km (89 mi). Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Inclination: 108.90 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1970 August 18---14:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan 23B 23B-6 (3B-28) OPS 7874 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Apogee: 377 km (234 mi). Inclination: 111.10 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1970 October 23---17:40 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 3B . Titan 23B 23B-7 (3B-29) OPS 7568 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 111.10 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1970 November 6---10:35 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-1 (3C-19) FAILURE: Partial Failure. IMEWS 1 Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 25,840 km (16,050 mi). Apogee: 36,128 km (22,448 mi). Inclination: 16.40 deg. Period: 1,197.90 min. First generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite; placed in incorrect subsynchronous orbit. One account claimed that it exhausted its propellant before it could be put into operation, but a 2007service history chart showed that is was considered operational for three years, well beyond its planned life.

1970 Late---MOL 1 Spacecraft: MOL. The first unmanned Gemini-B/Titan 3M qualification flight was planned for late 1970 at the time the program was cancelled.

1971 January 21---18:28 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 23B 23B-8 (3B-30) OPS 7776 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 139 km (86 mi). Apogee: 418 km (259 mi). Inclination: 110.90 deg. Period: 90.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1971 March 21---03:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 33B 33B-1 (3B-36) / Ascent Agena D Jumpseat 1 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: Jumpseat. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 390 km (240 mi). Apogee: 33,800 km (21,000 mi). Inclination: 63.20 deg. Period: 596.70 min.

1971 April 22---15:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 23B 23B-9 (3B-31) OPS 7899 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 132 km (82 mi). Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 110.60 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1971 May 5---07:43 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-2 (3C-20) IMEWS 2 Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 36,156 km (22,466 mi). Apogee: 36,527 km (22,696 mi). Inclination: 10.50 deg. Period: 1,464.60 min. First generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite. First completely sucessful operational satellite, remained in service for nearly 12 years. Positioned over the Indian Ocean at 75 deg E in 1979-1982. As of 1983 May 11 located at 73.28W drifting at 7.684W degrees per day.

1971---MOL 2 Spacecraft: MOL. The second unmanned Gemini-B/Titan 3M qualification flight would have taken place in 1971 and set the stage for the first manned mission in 1971.

1971 June 15---Vandenberg -. Initial launch of a Titan IIID space booster Initial launch of a Titan IIID space booster from Vandenberg AFB.

1971 June 15---18:41 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-1 KH-9 no. 01 (Big Bird) Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 89.30 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1971 June 20---22:45 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-12 Operational Test M1-17 Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). SSTTP M1-17 Target mission

1971 August 12---15:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-1 (3B-32) OPS 8607 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Apogee: 424 km (263 mi). Inclination: 111.00 deg. Period: 90.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1971 August 28---02:22 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-100 SSTTP M2-1 test Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 October 23---17:16 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-2 (3B-33) OPS 7616 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Apogee: 369 km (229 mi). Inclination: 110.90 deg. Period: 89.50 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1971 November 3---03:09 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-3 (3C-21) DSCS II-01 Mass: 520 kg (1,140 lb). Spacecraft: DSCS II. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Apogee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 13.80 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Defense Satellite Communications System. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 106 deg W in 1972-?; over the Americas at 81 deg W in 1977-1979; over the Americas at 100-110 deg W in drift 1979-1998 As of 1 September 2001 located at 103.05 deg W drifting at 0.044 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 110.10W drifting at 0.035W degrees per day.

1972 January 20---18:36 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-2 KH-9 no. 02 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Apogee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 97.00 deg. Period: 89.30 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1972 Early---MOL 3 (cancelled) Spacecraft: MOL. Crew: Taylor, Crews. Flight: MOL 3. At the time of the cancellation of the MOL program in June 1969, the first manned mission was planned for early 1972. A crew of two would have spent thirty days in orbit operating sophisticated military reconnaisance equipment and other experiments.

1972 February 16---09:59 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 33B 33B-2 (3B-37) FAILURE: Failure. Jumpseat 2 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: Jumpseat. Agency: USAF.

1972 March 1---09:39 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-4 (3C-22) IMEWS 3 Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,416 km (22,006 mi). Apogee: 35,962 km (22,345 mi). Inclination: 0.20 deg. Period: 1,429.90 min. First generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for over nine years. Positioned over the Pacific Ocean at 165 deg E in 1979-1980. As of 2003 Mar 5 located at 74.63E drifting at 0.712W degrees per day.

1972 March 17---17:00 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-3 (3B-34) OPS 1678 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 131 km (81 mi). Apogee: 409 km (254 mi). Inclination: 111.00 deg. Period: 89.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1972 May 20---15:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-4 (3B-35) FAILURE: Failure. OPS 6574 Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: USAF.

1972 May 24---23:45 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-46 Operational Test M2-10. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). SSTTP M2-10 Target mission

1972 July 7---17:46 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-5 KH-9 no. 03 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 96.00 deg. Period: 88.70 min. KH-9 type satellite. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1972 September 1---17:44 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-5 (3B-39) OPS 8888 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 142 km (88 mi). Apogee: 381 km (236 mi). Inclination: 110.40 deg. Period: 89.70 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1972 October 10---18:03 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-3 KH-9 no. 04 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Inclination: 96.50 deg. Period: 88.90 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1972 October 11---11:30 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-78 Operational Test M2-14 Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). SSTTP M2-14 Target mission

1972 Late---MOL 4 (cancelled) Spacecraft: MOL. Flight: MOL 4. Planned date of second manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation.

1972 December 21---17:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-6 (3B-40) OPS 3978 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 139 km (86 mi). Apogee: 378 km (234 mi). Inclination: 110.50 deg. Period: 89.70 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1973 March 9---21:00 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-6 KH-9 no. 05 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 150 km (90 mi). Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Inclination: 95.70 deg. Period: 88.70 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1973 May 16---16:40 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-7 (3B-41) OPS 2093 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 136 km (84 mi). Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Inclination: 110.50 deg. Period: 89.40 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1973 June 12---07:14 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-6 (3C-24) IMEWS 4 Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.30 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. First generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for over seven years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 75E in 1973; over the Americas at 105 deg W in 1979-1980. As of 1983 Jan 3 located at 73.21W drifting at 1.648W degrees per day.

1973 June 26---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-9 (3B-43) FAILURE: Agena upper stage failed to orbit. OPS 4018 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: USAF.

1973 July 13---20:24 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-7 KH-9 no. 06 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 143 km (88 mi). Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 96.20 deg. Period: 88.80 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1973---MOL 5 (cancelled) Spacecraft: MOL. Flight: MOL 5. Planned date of third manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation.

1973 August 21---16:07 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 33B 33B-3 (3B-38) / Ascent Agena D Jumpseat 3 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: Jumpseat. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 460 km (280 mi). Apogee: 39,296 km (24,417 mi). Inclination: 63.30 deg. Period: 705.70 min.

1973 September 27---17:15 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-8 (3B-42) OPS 6275 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 131 km (81 mi). Apogee: 385 km (239 mi). Inclination: 110.50 deg. Period: 89.70 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1973 October 6---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-69 Operational Test M2-27 Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). SSTTP M2-27 Target mission

1973 November 10---20:09 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-8 KH-9 no. 07 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Inclination: 96.90 deg. Period: 88.80 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1973 December 13---23:57 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-8 (3C-26) DSCS II-03 Mass: 566 kg (1,247 lb). Spacecraft: DSCS II. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 36,413 km (22,625 mi). Apogee: 36,661 km (22,780 mi). Inclination: 13.90 deg. Period: 1,474.60 min. Defense Satellite Communications System; 13 deg W. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 13 deg W in 1974-1977; over the Atlantic Ocean 57-66 deg W in 1977-1979 As of 3 September 2001 located at 104.01 deg E drifting at 9.429 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 148.24W drifting at 9.427W degrees per day.

1974 February 11---13:48 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3E . Titan IIIE 23E-1 / Centaur D-1T E-1 FAILURE: Centaur LOX pump failure. Sphinx Spacecraft: Sphinx. Agency: USAF. Space Plasma High Voltage Interaction Experiment. Payload carried on test flight of Titan 3E booster.

1974 February 13---18:00 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-10 (3B-44) OPS 6889 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Inclination: 110.40 deg. Period: 89.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1974 March 1---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-85 Operational Test M2-31 Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). SSTTP M2-31 Target mission

1974 April 10---20:20 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-9 KH-9 no. 08 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 94.50 deg. Period: 88.90 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1974---MOL 6 (cancelled) Spacecraft: MOL. Crew: Truly, Crippen. Flight: MOL 6. Planned date of fourth manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation. From the beginning of the project, the Navy had demanded that this be an all-Navy crew.

1974 May 30---13:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-9 (3C-27) ATS 6 Mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Spacecraft: ATS-6. Agency: NASA GSF. Perigee: 35,184 km (21,862 mi). Apogee: 35,444 km (22,023 mi). Inclination: 13.10 deg. Period: 1,412.00 min. Application Technology Satellite; experimental communications satellite. The purpose of the ATS-6 flight experiment was to demonstrate north-south stationkeeping of a geosynchronous satellite using two cesium ion engine systems. Thruster development tests included a life test of 2614 hours and 471 cycles. Thruster input power was 0.15 kW, which resulted in a thrust of 4.5 mN at a specific impulse of 2500 s. One of the ion engines operated for about one hour and the other for 92 hours. Both of the engines failed to provide thrust on restart due to discharge chamber cesium flooding. The feed system flooding problem caused overloading of the discharge and high voltage power supplies. This failure mechanism was verified through a series of ground tests. However engine operation demonstrated an absence of EMI related to spacecraft systems, verified predictions of spacecraft potential with engines operating, and demonstrated compatibility with the spacecraft's star tracker. It was found that the ion engines or just the neutralizer could discharge large negative spacecraft potentials at all times. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 94 deg W in 1974-1975; over the Indian Ocean 35 deg E in 1975-1976; over the Americas at 140 deg W in 1976-1979. As of 2 September 2001 located at 172.56 deg W drifting at 6.144 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 29.12W drifting at 6.125E degrees per day.

1974 June 6---16:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-11 (3B-45) OPS 1776 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 136 km (84 mi). Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 110.50 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1974 August 14---15:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-12 (3B-46) OPS 3004 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 135 km (83 mi). Apogee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 110.50 deg. Period: 89.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1974 October 29---19:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-4 KH-9 no. 09 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 115 km (71 mi). Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 96.70 deg. Period: 88.40 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1974 December 10---07:11 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3E . Titan IIIE 23E-2 / Centaur D-1T E-2 Helios 1 Mass: 370 kg (810 lb). Spacecraft: Helios. Agency: DFVLR. Solar probe. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Launched by the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. Helios A (Helios I). Heliocentric orbit 190 days, 0.309 x 0.985 AU x 0 deg. Exploration of the interplanetary space between the earth and the sun and study of solar influences on that area.

1975 January 10---02:27 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-27 SOFT Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1975---MOL 7 (cancelled) Spacecraft: MOL. Flight: MOL 7. Planned date of fifth manned MOL mission. This mission was already deleted from the FY 1970 budget request in April 1969, two months before the entire project was cancelled.

1975 March 10---04:41 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-1 (3B-50) / Ascent Agena D Jumpseat 4 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: Jumpseat. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Apogee: 39,337 km (24,442 mi). Inclination: 63.50 deg. Period: 702.00 min.

1975 April 18---16:48 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-14 (3B-48) OPS 4883 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 133 km (82 mi). Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Inclination: 110.50 deg. Period: 89.80 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1975 May 20---14:03 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-7 (3C-25) FAILURE: Transtage gyro platform lost power; attitude control lost; orbit too low. DSCS II-05 Mass: 566 kg (1,247 lb). Spacecraft: DSCS II. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Apogee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 28.60 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Unusable orbit. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1975 June 8---18:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-10 KH-9 no. 10 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 157 km (97 mi). Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Inclination: 96.30 deg. Period: 88.70 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1975 August 7---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-52 DG-2 Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1975 August 20---21:22 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3E . Titan IIIE 23E-4 / Centaur D-1T E-4 Viking 1 Orbiter Mass: 3,399 kg (7,493 lb). Spacecraft: Viking. Agency: NASA JPL. Combined Mars orbiter and lander mission; orbiter inserted in Mars orbit 6/19/76; lander soft landed on Martian surface 7/20/76Mars. Mars Orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

1975 September 9---18:39 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3E . Titan IIIE 23E-3 / Centaur D-1T E-3 Viking 2 Orbiter Mass: 3,399 kg (7,493 lb). Spacecraft: Viking. Agency: NASA JPL. Combined Mars orbiter and lander mission; orbiter inserted in Mars orbit 8/7/76; lander soft landed on Martian surface 9/3/76Mars. Mars Orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

1975 October 9---19:15 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-13 (3B-47) OPS 5499 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 145 km (90 mi). Apogee: 274 km (170 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 88.60 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1975 December 4---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-41 DG-4 Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1975 December 4---20:38 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-13 KH-9 no. 11 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 157 km (97 mi). Apogee: 234 km (145 mi). Inclination: 96.30 deg. Period: 88.40 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1975 December 14---05:15 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-11 (3C-29) IMEWS 5 Mass: 1,040 kg (2,290 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,671 km (22,164 mi). Apogee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 3.00 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Second generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for over twelve years. As of 1982 Dec 16 located at 34.61E drifting at 0.823E degrees per day.

1976 January 15---05:34 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3E . Titan IIIE 23E-5 / Centaur D-1T E-5 Helios 2 Mass: 376 kg (828 lb). Spacecraft: Helios. Agency: DFVLR. Solar probe. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1976 March 15---01:25 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-12 (3C-30) LES 8 Mass: 454 kg (1,000 lb). Spacecraft: LES. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,728 km (22,200 mi). Apogee: 35,835 km (22,266 mi). Inclination: 11.40 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication. Also tested pulsed plasma engines. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 1976-77; over the Americas at 106-110 deg W in 1978-1986; over the Atlantic Ocean 60-70 deg W in 1987-1991;over the Americas at 94-106 deg W in 1991-1992. As of 6 September 2001 located at 105.16 deg W drifting at 0.010 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 107.51W drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.

1976 March 22---18:14 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-18 (3B-52) OPS 7600 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 125 km (77 mi). Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 89.30 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1976 June 2---20:56 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-5 (3B-55) / Ascent Agena D SDS no. 1 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: SDS. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 380 km (230 mi). Apogee: 39,315 km (24,429 mi). Inclination: 63.30 deg. Period: 703.80 min.

1976 June 26---03:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-10 (3C-28) IMEWS 6 Mass: 1,040 kg (2,290 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,620 km (22,130 mi). Apogee: 35,860 km (22,280 mi). Inclination: 0.50 deg. Period: 1,433.30 min. Second generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for over eight years. Positioned over the Atlantic Ocean from 1976 to 1981: at 35 deg W in 1976-1977; at 65 deg W in 1977-1979; and 35 deg W in 1979-1980; and 65 deg W in 1980-1981. Then moved over the Pacific Ocean at 125 deg W, then 140 deg W in 1981-1982; then over the Indian Ocean at 75 deg E in 1982-1984.

1976 June 28---02:40 GMT---Vandenberg 395-C. LV Model: Titan 2 . Titan II B-17 ITF-1 Target mission Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Last launch of a Titan II ICBM (first West Coast launch on 16 February 1963). Demonstrated new Universal Space Guidance System for launch vehicle variant.

1976 July 8---18:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-14 KH-9 no. 12 Mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Apogee: 242 km (150 mi). Inclination: 97.00 deg. Period: 88.50 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1976 August 6---22:21 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-6 (3B-56) / Ascent Agena D SDS no. 2 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: SDS. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 380 km (230 mi). Apogee: 39,315 km (24,429 mi). Inclination: 63.30 deg. Period: 703.80 min. Satellite Data Systems 2.

1976 September 15---18:50 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-17 (3B-51) OPS 8533 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 142 km (88 mi). Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 89.20 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1976 December 19---18:19 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-15 KH-11 no. 1 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-11. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 246 km (152 mi). Apogee: 531 km (329 mi). Inclination: 96.90 deg. Period: 92.30 min. KH-11 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1977 February 6---06:00 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-5 (3C-23) IMEWS 7 Mass: 1,040 kg (2,290 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,620 km (22,130 mi). Apogee: 35,860 km (22,280 mi). Inclination: 0.50 deg. Period: 1,433.30 min. Second generation geosynchronous ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for nearly seven years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 135 deg W in 1977-1979; over the Indian Ocean 70 deg E in 1979-1984.

1977 March 13---18:41 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-19 (3B-54) OPS 4915 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 141 km (87 mi). Apogee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 89.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1977 May 12---14:26 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-14 (3C-32) DSCS II-07 Mass: 565 kg (1,245 lb). Spacecraft: DSCS II. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 36,759 km (22,840 mi). Apogee: 36,894 km (22,924 mi). Inclination: 15.80 deg. Period: 1,489.60 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 12 deg W in 1977-1979; over the Atlantic Ocean 5 deg W in 1979; over the Pacific Ocean 140 deg E in 1980-1981 As of 28 August 2001 located at 152.07 deg W drifting at 12.959 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 47.37W drifting at 12.959W degrees per day.

1977 June 27---18:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-17 KH-9 no. 13 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 155 km (96 mi). Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 97.00 deg. Period: 88.50 min. KH-9 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1977 August 20---14:29 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3E . Titan IIIE 23E-7 / Centaur D-1T E-7 Voyager 2 Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Spacecraft: Voyager. Agency: NASA JPL. Jupiter flyby 7/9/79, Saturn flyby 8/26/81, Uranus flyby 1/24/86, Neptune flyby 8/25/89. Solar system escape trajectory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

1977 September 5---12:56 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 3E . Titan IIIE 23E-6 / Centaur D-1T E-6 Voyager 1 Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Spacecraft: Voyager. Agency: NASA JPL. Jupiter flyby 3/5/79, Saturn flyby 11/12/80. Solar system escape trajectory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

1977 September 23---18:34 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-23 (3B-58) OPS 7471 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Apogee: 335 km (208 mi). Inclination: 96.50 deg. Period: 89.10 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1978 February 25---05:00 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-2 (3B-49) / Ascent Agena D Jumpseat 5 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: Jumpseat. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 311 km (193 mi). Apogee: 39,377 km (24,467 mi). Inclination: 63.20 deg. Period: 703.70 min.

1978 March 16---18:43 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-20 KH-9 no. 14 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 88.50 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1978 March 25---18:09 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-17 (3C-35) FAILURE: Second stage hydraulic pump failure. DSCS II-09 Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Spacecraft: DSCS II. Agency: U.S. Air Force. Launched with DSCS F10.

1978 June 10---19:12 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-15 (3C-33) Chalet 1 Mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Spacecraft: Chalet. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 29,929 km (18,596 mi). Apogee: 42,039 km (26,121 mi). Inclination: 12.00 deg. Period: 1,446.30 min. First launch of the heavier, mored advanced CHALET ELINT satellites. (the project was renamed VORTEX when the code name CHALET appeared in the New York Times).

1978 June 14---18:28 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-18 KH-11 no. 2 Mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Spacecraft: KH-11. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 223 km (138 mi). Apogee: 509 km (316 mi). Inclination: 97.00 deg. Period: 91.90 min. KH-11 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1978 August 5---05:00 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-7 (3B-57) / Ascent Agena D SDS no. 3 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: SDS. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 315 km (195 mi). Apogee: 39,053 km (24,266 mi). Inclination: 62.50 deg. Period: 697.10 min.

1978 August 24---McConnell AFB -. Accident at Titan 2 Silo 533-7 at McConnell AFB kills 2 and injures 25 Large scale oxidizer spill during fueling operation caused extensive damage to the silo and resulted in the death and injuries. Repairs were started but the silo complex was never returned to alert status.

1978 December 14---00:43 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-18 (3C-36) DSCS II-11 Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Spacecraft: DSCS II. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 37,515 km (23,310 mi). Apogee: 37,749 km (23,456 mi). Inclination: 9.80 deg. Period: 1,531.40 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 135 deg W in 1979-1983 over the Pacific Ocean 129 deg W in 1983-1989 As of 5 September 2001 located at 62.62 deg W drifting at 22.467 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 96.59E drifting at 22.469W degrees per day.

1979 March 16---18:30 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-21 KH-9 no. 15 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 88.80 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1979 May 28---18:14 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-25 (3B-61) OPS 7164 Mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 131 km (81 mi). Apogee: 285 km (177 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 88.70 min. KH-8 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1979 June 10---13:39 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-13 (3C-31) IMEWS 10 Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,712 km (22,190 mi). Apogee: 35,854 km (22,278 mi). Inclination: 1.80 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. First Multi-Orbit Satellite / Performance Improvement ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for nearly six years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 135 deg W in 1979-1982; 85 deg W in 1982-1984; 135 deg W in 1984; 125 deg W in 1985..

1979 October 1---11:22 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-16 (3C-34) Chalet 2 Mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Spacecraft: Chalet. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 30,443 km (18,916 mi). Apogee: 41,497 km (25,784 mi). Inclination: 7.50 deg. Period: 1,445.50 min. Chalet ELINT satellite.

1979 November 21---21:36 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-19 (3C-37) DSCS II-13 Mass: 611 kg (1,347 lb). Spacecraft: DSCS II. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 37,104 km (23,055 mi). Apogee: 37,195 km (23,111 mi). Inclination: 13.60 deg. Period: 1,506.30 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 12 deg W in 1980-1981; 131 deg W in 1981-1983; 179 deg W in 1983; 175 deg E in 1983-1989;179 deg W in 1989-1993 As of 3 September 2001 located at 21.08 deg E drifting at 16.828 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 37.50W drifting at 16.828W degrees per day.

1980 February 7---21:10 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-19 KH-11 no. 3 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-11. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Apogee: 498 km (309 mi). Inclination: 97.00 deg. Period: 91.70 min. KH-11 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1980 June 18---18:29 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-16 KH-9 no. 16 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 164 km (101 mi). Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 88.80 min. KH-9 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A).

1980 September 19---Titan 2 s/n M68B-25 / 62-0006 Titan 2 explodes in silo. An Air Force repairman doing routine maintenance in a Titan II ICBM silo dropped a wrench socket, which rolled off a work platform and fell to the bottom of the silo. The socket struck the missile, causing a leak from a pressurized fuel tank. The missile complex and surrounding areas were evacuated. Eight and a half hours later, the fuel vapors ignited, causing an explosion which killed an Air Force specialist and injured 21 others. The explosion also blew off the 670-tonne reinforced concrete-and-steel silo door and catapulted the warhead 200 m into the air. The silo was later filled in with gravel.

1980 December 13---16:04 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-3 (3B-53) SDS no. 4 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: SDS. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Apogee: 39,130 km (24,310 mi). Inclination: 63.80 deg. Period: 697.40 min.

1981 February 28---19:15 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-24 (3B-59) OPS 1166 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 138 km (85 mi). Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 89.30 min. KH-8 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1981 March 16---19:24 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-22 (3C-40) IMEWS 11 Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,463 km (22,035 mi). Apogee: 35,527 km (22,075 mi). Inclination: 2.00 deg. Period: 1,421.20 min. Multi-Orbit Satellite / Performance Improvement ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for nearly eleven years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 69 deg W in 1981-1982; 135 deg W in 1982-1984; 75 deg E in 1984-1985. As of 2003 Mar 6 located at 40.27E drifting at 0.598E degrees per day.

1981 April 24---21:32 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-8 (3B-60) / Ascent Agena D Jumpseat 6 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: Jumpseat. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Apogee: 708 km (439 mi). Inclination: 62.70 deg. Period: 93.00 min. SDS 4 not deployed.

1981 September 3---18:29 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-22 KH-11 no. 4 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-11. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 244 km (151 mi). Apogee: 526 km (326 mi). Inclination: 97.00 deg. Period: 92.30 min. KH-11 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1981 October 31---09:22 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-21 (3C-39) Chalet 3 Mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Spacecraft: Chalet. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Inclination: 29.30 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Chalet ELINT satellite.

1982 January 21---19:36 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-26 (3B-62) OPS 2849 Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Apogee: 527 km (327 mi). Inclination: 97.30 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Possible test of KH-12 systems. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1982 March 6---19:25 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 3C . Titan IIIC 23C-20 (3C-38) IMEWS 13 Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,520 km (22,070 mi). Apogee: 35,598 km (22,119 mi). Inclination: 2.00 deg. Period: 1,424.40 min. Multi-Orbit Satellite / Performance Improvement ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for over sixteen years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Pacific Ocean at 68 deg W in 1982; 35 deg W in 1983-1988; 165 deg W in 1988-1989; 35 deg W in 1989-1991.

1982 May 11---18:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-24 KH-9 no. 17 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 88.90 min. KH-9 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1982 October 30---04:05 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 34D/IUS 34D-1 (04D-5?) DSCS II-15 Spacecraft: DSCS II. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 37,277 km (23,162 mi). Apogee: 37,332 km (23,196 mi). Inclination: 11.30 deg. Period: 1,514.40 min. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 15 deg W in 1983-1987; 66 deg E in 1987; 60 deg E in 1987-1994; 65 deg E in 1994-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 114.00 deg W drifting at 18.661 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 172.94E drifting at 18.658W degrees per day. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1982 November 17---Vandenberg -. Final launch of a Titan IIID Final launch of a Titan IIID from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 1 5 June 1971).

1982 November 17---21:22 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Model: Titan 3D . Titan IIID 23D-23 KH-11 no. 5 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-11. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Inclination: 97.00 deg. Period: 92.60 min. KH-11 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1983 April 15---18:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-27 (3B-63) OPS 2925 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 131 km (81 mi). Apogee: 305 km (189 mi). Inclination: 96.50 deg. Period: 88.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1983 June 20---Vandenberg -. First of seven Titan 34D launches First of seven Titan 34D launches from the West Coast.

1983 June 20---18:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 34D 34D-5 (04D-3) KH-9 no. 18 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 159 km (98 mi). Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 96.50 deg. Period: 88.80 min. KH-9 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1983 July 31---15:41 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-9 (3B-65) / Ascent Agena D Jumpseat 7 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: Jumpseat. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 1,028 km (638 mi). Apogee: 39,321 km (24,432 mi). Inclination: 63.40 deg. Period: 717.10 min.

1984 January 31---03:08 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 34D/Transtage 34D-10 (05D-1) Chalet 4 Mass: 1,043 kg (2,299 lb). Spacecraft: Chalet. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 146 km (90 mi). Apogee: 1,023 km (635 mi). Inclination: 29.40 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Chalet ELINT satellite.

1984 April 14---16:52 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 34D/Transtage 34D-11 (05D-2) DSP Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,530 km (22,070 mi). Apogee: 35,530 km (22,070 mi). Inclination: 1.30 deg. Period: 1,423.00 min. Multi-Orbit Satellite / Performance Improvement ballistic missile launch detection satellite, remained in service for nearly eighteen years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 135 deg W in 1984-1985; 65 deg E in 1985-1988; as of 31 December 1990 at 99.16 deg W drifting at 0.050 deg W per day.

1984 April 17---18:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 24B 24B-28 (3B-67) OPS 8424 Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Spacecraft: KH-8. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 127 km (78 mi). Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Inclination: 96.40 deg. Period: 88.90 min. KH-8 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1984 June 25---18:43 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 34D 34D-4 (04D-1) USA 2 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Apogee: 230 km (140 mi). Inclination: 96.50 deg. Period: 88.50 min. KH-9 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1984 August 28---18:03 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-4 (3B-64) / Ascent Agena D USA 4 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: SDS. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 380 km (230 mi). Apogee: 39,975 km (24,839 mi). Inclination: 63.30 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Satellite Data Systems 2.

1984 December 4---18:00 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 34D 34D-6 (04D-4) USA 6 Mass: 13,000 kg (28,000 lb). Spacecraft: KH-11. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Apogee: 650 km (400 mi). Inclination: 97.10 deg. Period: 93.50 min. KH-11 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1984 December 22---00:02 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 34D/Transtage 34D-13 (05D-3) USA 7 Mass: 1,670 kg (3,680 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,619 km (22,132 mi). Apogee: 35,915 km (22,316 mi). Inclination: 3.40 deg. Period: 1,445.80 min. Reserve Phase 2 DSP ballistic missile launch detection satellite fitted with Block 14 sensors, remained in service for nearly eighteen years. Observed Scud launches during Gulf War. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 155 deg W in 1985-1988; 65 deg E in 1988-1991; 145 deg E in 1991-1992; 105 deg E in 1992-1993; 5 deg E in 1993-1994.

1985 February 8---06:10 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-10 (3B-69) / Ascent Agena D USA 9 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: SDS. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Apogee: 39,775 km (24,714 mi). Inclination: 63.00 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Satellite Data Systems 2.

1985 August 28---21:20 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 34D 34D-7 (04D-6) FAILURE: Stage 1 propellant feed system failure forced premature engine shutdown. KH-11 no. 7 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-11. Agency: U.S. Air Force. KH-11 type satellite.

1986 April 18---17:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 34D 34D-9 (04D-2) FAILURE: SRM case insulation burned through, causing case burn-through and catastrophic explosion over pad at T+8.5 seconds. KH-9 no. 20 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-9. Agency: U.S. Air Force. KH-9 type satellite.

1987 February 11---Vandenberg -. Last launch of the Titan IIIB/Agena Last launch of the Titan IIIB/Agena (first launch on 29 July 1966).

1987 February 12---06:40 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. Titan 34B 34B-51 (3B-66) / Ascent Agena D USA 21 Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Spacecraft: SDS. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 610 km (370 mi). Apogee: 39,750 km (24,690 mi). Inclination: 63.40 deg. Period: 718.10 min.

1987 October 26---21:32 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 34D 34D-15 (04D-8) USA 27 Mass: 13,300 kg (29,300 lb). Spacecraft: KH-11. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Apogee: 1,029 km (639 mi). Inclination: 97.80 deg. Period: 96.50 min. KH-11 type satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1987 November 29---03:28 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 34D/Transtage 34D-8 (05D-4) USA 28 Mass: 1,670 kg (3,680 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,514 km (22,067 mi). Apogee: 35,558 km (22,094 mi). Inclination: 2.90 deg. Period: 1,423.30 min. Reserve DSP ballistic missile launch detection satellite fitted with Block 14 sensors, remained in service for only five years.. Observed Scud launches during Gulf War. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg W in 1988-1989; 10 deg E in 1989-1992; 35 deg W in 1992-1993; 105 deg E in 1993; 165 deg W in 1999.

1988 September 2---12:05 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 34D/Transtage 34D-3 (05D-5) FAILURE: Broken Transtage pressurization feed lines prevented the geosynchronous orbit apogee burn from taking place. USA 31 Mass: 1,045 kg (2,303 lb). Spacecraft: Chalet. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 151 km (93 mi). Apogee: 14,103 km (8,763 mi). Inclination: 29.30 deg. Period: 99.80 min. Chalet ELINT satellite; upper stage failure left in lower than planned orbit.

1988 September 5---Vandenberg -. First Titan 2 standard launch vehicle launch First Titan II standard launch vehicle (SLV), a refurbished and modified Titan II ICBM, launched from Vandenberg AFB.

1988 September 5---09:25 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-1 / M68B-56 + M68B-98 USA 32 Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Spacecraft: Singleton. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Inclination: 85.00 deg. Period: 89.30 min. New class of signals intelligence satellite; possibly some kind of imaging also done. On-board propulsion boosts spacecraft to 800 km operating orbit.

1988 November 6---Vandenberg -. Final Titan 34D launch from Vandenberg AFB Final Titan 34D launch from Vandenberg AFB (first launch on 20 June 1983).

1988 November 6---18:03 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 34D 34D-14 (04D-7) USA 33 Mass: 13,500 kg (29,700 lb). Spacecraft: KH-11. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 156 km (96 mi). Apogee: 1,012 km (628 mi). Inclination: 97.90 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1989 May 10---19:47 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 34D/Transtage 34D-16 (05D-6) USA 37 Mass: 1,045 kg (2,303 lb). Spacecraft: Chalet. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 455 km (282 mi). Apogee: 40,073 km (24,900 mi). Inclination: 27.50 deg. Period: 720.00 min. Chalet ELINT satellite.

1989 June 14---13:18 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. Titan 402A/IUS K-1 (45D-1) USA 39 Mass: 2,360 kg (5,200 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,699 km (22,182 mi). Apogee: 35,614 km (22,129 mi). Inclination: 3.10 deg. Period: 1,421.80 min. First DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite; first Titan 4 launch. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 165 deg W in 1990-1994; 145 deg W in 1999; 166 deg W in 2000.. Still in service as of March 2007. As of 2007 Feb 5 located at 145.23W drifting at 0.014W degrees per day.

1989 September 4---05:54 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 34D/Transtage 34D-2 (05D-7) USA 43 Spacecraft: DSCS III. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Inclination: 6.10 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit; at 57 deg E in 1995.

1989 September 6---01:49 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-2 / M68B-99 + M68B-75 USA 45 Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Spacecraft: Singleton. Agency: USAF. Signals intelligence. Reentered from initial parking orbit of 200 km after failure of on-board boost motor.

1990 January 1---00:07 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Commercial Titan 3 CT-1 Skynet 4A Mass: 1,463 kg (3,225 lb). Spacecraft: ECS/OTS. Agency: UK MoD. Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 5.50 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. British military communications; 6 deg E. Military communications. Expected life approx 7 years. Owner/operator: Ministry of Defence, Main Building, Whitehall, London SW1A 2HB. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 6 deg E in 1990; 29 deg E in 1991; 65 deg E in 1991; 34 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 34.01 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 63.46W drifting at 4.595W degrees per day.

1990 March 14---11:52 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Commercial Titan 3 CT-2 FAILURE: Second stage failed to separate due to a wiring error in the stage separation electronics, stranding the payload in low earth orbit. Intelsat 6 F-3 Mass: 4,215 kg (9,292 lb). Spacecraft: HS 393. Agency: INTELSAT. Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. 38 C-band and 10 Ku-band transponders. Placed in unusable low earth orbit after second stage separation failure. In May 1992 shuttle STS-49 snared the satellite, and in three EVA's the crew attached a new perigee boost motor, which then reboosted the satellite to geosynchrounous orbit. Positioned at 34 deg W in 1992-1997; 24 deg W in 1997-2001. Later assigned to Intelsat spin-off New Skies, which positioned it at 340º East, from where it provided C-band coverage of the entire Atlantic region, including virtually all of Latin America, Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the eastern half of North America. As an inclined orbit satellite, IS-603 was best suited for voice/data trunking and video contribution, but could also be used for carrier-scale IP services, notably network bridging and expansion. It supplemented the prime Atlantic region coverage provided by the station-kept NSS 7 satellite, located at 338º East. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 19.96W drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

1990 June 8---05:22 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. Titan 405A K-4 (45H-4) USA 59 Spacecraft: NOSS-2. Agency: NRO/NRL. Perigee: 268 km (166 mi). Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Inclination: 61.00 deg. Period: 90.00 min. First launch by Titan 4 of new generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. However earlier NOSS weighed only 2,000 kg; Titan 4 booster has seven times this capacity. What else was launched?

1990 June 23---11:19 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Commercial Titan 3 CT-3 Intelsat 6 F-4 Mass: 4,215 kg (9,292 lb). Spacecraft: HS 393. Agency: INTELSAT. Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. International communications; 63 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 38 deg W in 1990; 27 deg W in 1990-1992; 60 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 60.04 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 61.81E drifting at 6.628W degrees per day.

1990 November 13---00:37 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. Titan 402A/IUS K-6 (45D-2) USA 65 Mass: 2,360 kg (5,200 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,614 km (22,129 mi). Apogee: 35,699 km (22,182 mi). Inclination: 3.10 deg. Period: 1,421.80 min. DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 105 deg E in 1991; 70 deg E in 1991-1992; 5 deg E in 1992-1993; 35 deg W in 1993; 38 deg W in 1999-2004. Believed to have been taken out of service in 2006.

1991 March 8---12:03 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 403A K-5 (45F-1) USA 69 Spacecraft: Lacrosse. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 420 km (260 mi). Apogee: 662 km (411 mi). Inclination: 68.00 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Still operating December 1997. First West Coast launch of a Titan 4.

1991 November 8---07:07 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 403A K-8 (45F-2) USA 72 Spacecraft: NOSS-2. Agency: NRO/NRL. Perigee: 799 km (496 mi). Apogee: 1,321 km (820 mi). Inclination: 63.40 deg. Period: 106.40 min. Second launch by Titan 4 of new generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. However earlier NOSS weighed only 2,000 kg; Titan 4 booster has seven times this capacity. What else was launched?

1992 April 25---08:53 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-3 / M68B-102 / 65-10646 USA 81 Mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Spacecraft: Singleton. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 145 km (90 mi). Apogee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 84.90 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Signals intelligence satellite; possibly some kind of imaging also done. On-board propulsion boosts spacecraft to 800 km operating orbit.

1992 September 25---17:05 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Commercial Titan 3 CT-4 Mars Observer Mass: 2,573 kg (5,672 lb). Spacecraft: Mars Observer. Agency: NASA JPL. Planned Mars orbiter; lost contact during orbit insertion burn. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

1992 November 28---21:34 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 404A K-3 (45J-1) USA 86 Mass: 19,600 kg (43,200 lb). Spacecraft: Improved Crystal. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Apogee: 911 km (566 mi). Inclination: 97.70 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Optical reconnaisance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office.

1993 August 2---19:59 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 403A K-11 (45F-9) FAILURE: Radial cut inadvertently made in SRM during repairs resulted in explosion of SRM and vehicle at T+101 seconds. NOSS 19 Spacecraft: NOSS-2. Agency: U.S. Navy. Apogee: 33 km (20 mi). Third attempted launch by Titan 4 of new generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. No known launches of this system thereafter.

1993 October 5---17:56 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-5 / M68B-65 / 63-7720 FAILURE: Star-37XFP-ISS kick-motor malfunction. Landsat 6 Spacecraft: Landsat 6. Agency: USAF AFMC. Apogee: 724 km (449 mi).

1994 January 25---16:34 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-11 / M68B-67 + M68B-89 Clementine 1 Mass: 424 kg (934 lb). Spacecraft: Clementine. Agency: BMDO. Perigee: 804 km (499 mi). Apogee: 409,890 km (254,690 mi). Inclination: 63.80 deg. Period: 16,158.80 min. SDIO sensor technology demonstration; mapped lunar surface; planned asteroid flyby cancelled due to spacecraft failure. After two Earth flybys, lunar insertion was achieved on February 21. Lunar mapping took place over approximately two months, in two parts. The first part consisted of a 5 hour elliptical polar orbit with a perilune of about 400 km at 28 degrees S latitude. After one month of mapping the orbit was rotated to a perilune of 29 degrees N latitude, where it remained for one more month. This allowed global imaging as well as altimetry coverage from 60 degrees S to 60 degrees N. After leaving lunar orbit, a malfunction in one of the on-board computers on May 7 at 14:39 UTC (9:39 AM EST) caused a thruster to fire until it had used up all of its fuel, leaving the spacecraft spinning at about 80 RPM with no spin control. This made the planned continuation of the mission, a flyby of the near-Earth asteroid Geographos, impossible. The spacecraft remained in geocentric orbit and continued testing the spacecraft components until the end of mission. Additional Details: Clementine 1.

1994 February 7---21:47 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401A/Centaur K-10/TC-12 (45E-3) USA 99 Mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Spacecraft: Milstar. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,733 km (22,203 mi). Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 12.00 deg. Period: 1,434.00 min. Military communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg W in 1994; 120 deg W in 1995-1999.

1994 May 3---15:55 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. Titan 401A/Centaur K-7/TC-10 (45E-1) USA 103 Mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Spacecraft: Trumpet. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 518 km (321 mi). Apogee: 537 km (333 mi). Inclination: 55.10 deg. Period: 95.20 min. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).

1994 August 27---08:58 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. Titan 401A/Centaur K-9/TC-11 (45E-2) USA 105 Spacecraft: Mercury ELINT. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. First launch of Mercury ELINT satellite.

1994 December 22---22:19 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 402A/IUS K-14 (45D-3) USA 107 Mass: 2,360 kg (5,200 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1999. Still in service as of March 2007.

1995 May 14---13:45 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401A/Centaur K-23/TC-17 (45E-8) USA 110 Spacecraft: Advanced Orion. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. First launch of 'Advanced Orion' (real code name unknown) new model geostationary ELINT satellite.

1995 July 10---12:38 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. Titan 401A/Centaur K-19/TC-8 (45E-5) USA 112 Mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Spacecraft: Trumpet. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Apogee: 39,000 km (24,000 mi). Inclination: 64.00 deg.

1995 November 6---05:15 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401A/Centaur K-21/TC-13 (45E-7) USA 115 Mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Spacecraft: Milstar. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 10.00 deg. Secure military communication. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 4 deg E in 1995-2001. As of 2005 Mar 14 located at 10.26E drifting at 0.012E degrees per day.

1995 December 5---21:18 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 404A K-15 (45J-3) USA 116 Mass: 26,000 kg (57,000 lb). Spacecraft: Improved Crystal. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Apogee: 976 km (606 mi). Inclination: 98.70 deg. Optical reconnaisance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office. Instruments said to include a large telescope with visual and near infrared wavelength CCD sensors and the ICMS mapping system.

1996 April 24---23:37 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. Titan 401A/Centaur K-16/TC-15 (45E-4) USA 118 Spacecraft: Mercury ELINT. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 30,000 km (18,000 mi). Second launch of Mercury ELINT satellite.

1996 May 12---21:32 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 403A K-22 (45F-11) USA 119 Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Spacecraft: SDS-2. Agency: NRO/NRL. Perigee: 1,051 km (653 mi). Apogee: 1,165 km (723 mi). Inclination: 63.40 deg. Period: 107.44 min. Unknown orbit

1996 July 3---00:31 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 405A K-2 (45H-1) USA 125 Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Spacecraft: SDS-2. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 292 km (181 mi). Apogee: 319 km (198 mi). Inclination: 54.90 deg. Period: 90.63 min. Unknown orbit

1996 December 20---18:04 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 404A K-13 (45J-5) USA 129 Mass: 19,600 kg (43,200 lb). Spacecraft: Improved Crystal. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Apogee: 949 km (589 mi). Inclination: 97.90 deg. Optical reconnaisance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office.

1997 February 23---20:20 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 402B/IUS 4B-24 (K-24, 45D-4) USA 130 Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1999. Still in service as of March 2007.

1997 April 4---16:47 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-6 / M68B-106 / 66-4317 USA 131 Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D-2. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 842 km (523 mi). Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Inclination: 98.90 deg. Period: 101.90 min.

1997 October 15---08:43 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-33/TC-21 (45E-13) Cassini Spacecraft: Cassini. Agency: NASA/JPL. En route Venus

1997 October 24---02:32 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 403A 4A-18 (K-18, 45F-3) USA 133 Spacecraft: Lacrosse. Agency: NRO/CIA. Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Apogee: 679 km (421 mi). Inclination: 57.00 deg. Still operating December 1997.

1997 November 8---02:05 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. Titan 401A/Centaur 4A-17/TC-16 (45E-?) USA 136 Mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Spacecraft: Trumpet. Agency: NRO/USAF. Perigee: 1,100 km (600 mi). Apogee: 39,059 km (24,270 mi). Inclination: 63.60 deg.

1998 May 9---01:38 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-25/TC-18 (K-25) USA 139 Spacecraft: Advanced Orion. Agency: NRO/NSA. Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg.

1998 May 13---15:52 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-12 / M68B-72 + M68B-80 + M68B-84 NOAA 15 Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N . Agency: NOAA. Perigee: 807 km (501 mi). Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Inclination: 98.70 deg. Period: 101.20 min. NOAA K carried a new microwave sensor in addition to the standard optical/near-infrared radiometers and imagers and the SARSAT search and rescue package. It was the first NOAA launch to use the Titan 23G launch vehicle, a refurbished ICBM. Titan 23G-12 placed NOAA K into a suborbital trajectory 6 minutes after launch. A Star 37XFP solid motor on the satellite fired at apogee to put NOAA K in orbit.

1998 August 12---11:30 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. Titan 401A/Centaur 4A-20/TC-9 (K-17) FAILURE: Due to guidance system loss of heading after power interrupt, booster pitched over 40 seconds after launch, and was destroyed by range safety. Mercury ELINT Spacecraft: Mercury ELINT. Agency: NRO/NSA. Third launch of Mercury ELINT satellite.

1999 April 9---17:01 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Model: Titan 402B/IUS . Titan 402B 4B-27 / IUS K-32 FAILURE: IUS first and second stages failed to separate. USA 142 Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 720 km (440 mi). Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 28.00 deg. The Titan 4B placed the IUS upper stages and DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. payload into a 188 km x 718 km x 28.6 deg parking orbit. The first stage of the IUS burned at 18:14 GMT and put the second stage and payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. The IUS second stage fired at 23:34 GMT in order to place the spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit. However, at least one connector remained attached between the stages, and the second stage motor nozzle did not extend properly. When the stage fired, the vehicle tumbled wildly during the burn. Separation of the DSP was achieved. Although it could not perform its primary mission, it did provide a good test case in that the effects of radiation on its systems could be monitored as they underwent twice-daily passages of the Van Allen Radiation Belts. However after some weeks the hydrazine propellant aboard the satellite vented into space due to a broken fuel line. It was believed this had been induced by the wild ride aboard the IUS-2 stage.

1999 April 30---16:30 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-32/TC-14 (K-26) FAILURE: Centaur software programming error. USA 143 Spacecraft: Milstar. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 1,097 km (681 mi). Apogee: 5,149 km (3,199 mi). Inclination: 28.20 deg. The Titan core vehicle operated correctly, but a software error in the Centaur stage resulted in all three planned burns being made at the wrong times, during the first orbit instead of over a six hour period. The three burns planned to place Milstar successively in a 170 x 190 km parking orbit, a geostationary transfer orbit, and finally geosynchronous orbit. Instead, at 19:00 GMT, several hours before the scheduled third burn, Milstar separated into a useless 740 km x 5000 km orbit. Milstar-2 F1 was the first upgraded Milstar with an extra Medium Data Rate payload with a higher throughput. The payload included EHF (44 GHz), SHF (20 GHz) and UHF communications transponders and satellite-to-satellite crosslinks, with narrow beams to avoid jamming.

1999 May 22---09:36 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 404B 4B-12 USA 144 Spacecraft: Misty. Agency: NRO. Perigee: 2,700 km (1,600 mi). Apogee: 3,100 km (1,900 mi). Inclination: 63.50 deg. This classified National Reconnaissance Office satellite represented the first successful Titan launch in four attempts. The payload had been reported to be a Lacrosse radar imaging reconnaissance satellite. However the short 50 foot Titan fairing was used instead of the 66 foot fairing used by Lacrosse. This only seems to be used previously for an Improved Crystal photo-reconnaissance satellite in November 1992. The payload therefore could be related to the ocean surveillance triplets, or be an Improved CRYSTAL derivative. Veteran amateur satellite-watchers believed it was the second launch of 'Misty', a stealthy optical reconnaisance satellite (the first launch being USA 53 in February 1990).

1999 June 20---02:15 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-7 / M68B-75 / 63-7730 QuikScat Spacecraft: QuikScat. Agency: NASA GSF. Perigee: 804 km (499 mi). Apogee: 806 km (500 mi). Inclination: 98.60 deg. NASA's QuikScat carried the SeaWinds scatterometer for remote sensing of ocean winds. The Titan 2’s second stage shut down at 02:20 GMT and then coasted to apogee still attached to the QuikScat. The Titan second stage vernier thrusters ignited at apogee to raise perigee, leaving QuikScat in a 280 km x 813 km x 98.7 degree parking orbit. The QuikScat's own hydrazine propulsion system then fired to raise the perigee over a period of weeks.

1999 December 12---17:38 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-8 / M68B-44 + M68B-94 USA 147 Mass: 1,154 kg (2,544 lb). Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D-3. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 837 km (520 mi). Apogee: 851 km (528 mi). Inclination: 98.90 deg. First launch of the Block 5D-3 military weather satellite. Satellite F-15 was placed in an initial suborbital trajectory. The Star 37S kick motor on the satellite fired 13 minutes after launch for orbit insertion.

2000 May 8---16:01 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 402B/IUS . Titan 402B 4B-29 / IUS USA 149 Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.00 deg. DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Delivered by the two-stage IUS-22 solid rocket into geostationary orbit. Fullfilled mission of DSP 19 launched in 1999 into the wrong orbit when its IUS stage failed. Still in service as of March 2007. As of 2005 Apr 2 located at 8.05E drifting at 0.166E degrees per day.

2000 August 17---23:45 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 403B 4B-28 / K-25 USA 152 Mass: 14,500 kg (31,900 lb). Spacecraft: Lacrosse. Agency: NRO. Perigee: 689 km (428 mi). Apogee: 695 km (432 mi). Inclination: 68.00 deg. Period: 98.53 min. The National Reconnaissance Office satellite was reported to be an Onyx (formerly Lacrosse) radar imaging spacecraft built by Lockheed Martin. The Titan second stage reached a 572 x 675 km x 68.0 deg orbit and separated from the payload. Amateur observers reported the payload has made two small maneuvers and by Aug 23 was in a 681 x 695 km x 68.1 deg orbit.

2000 September 21---10:22 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-13 / M68B-39 + M68B-96 NOAA 16 Mass: 1,476 kg (3,254 lb). Spacecraft: Advanced Tiros N. Agency: NOAA. Perigee: 853 km (530 mi). Apogee: 867 km (539 mi). Inclination: 98.79 deg. Period: 102.06 min. Launch attempt on September 20 scrubbed. The NOAA polar orbit weather satellite, an Advanced Tiros N with a suite of imaging and sounding instruments. The two-stage Titan II launch vehicle, serial 23G-13, put NOAA-L into a suborbital -2500 x 800 km x 98.0 deg trajectory. The spacecraft's Thiokol Star 37XFP solid motor fired at apogee to circularize the sun-synchronous orbit at 800 km.

2001 February 27---21:20 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-41/TC-22 (K-30) USA 157 Mass: 4,670 kg (10,290 lb). Spacecraft: Milstar. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Apogee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 4.50 deg. Period: 1,435.05 min. Military Communications satellite. Launch delayed from October 30, December 14, 2000, and February 2 and February 24, 2001. The Milstar DFS 4 satellite (the second Milstar Block 2) provided secure communications for the US Department of Defense, with UHF, EHF and SHF band transmitters. Titan 4B-41 with core stage K-30 took off from Cape Canaveral and placed Milstar and the Centaur TC-22 upper stage in a suborbital trajectory. TC-22 then ignited to enter a 200 km parking orbit, and after two more burns delivered Milstar to geosynchronous drift orbit. Small engines on board the Milstar placed it at its targeted geostationary position. USA 157, a 4.5 tonne spacecraft, was the first in the Milstar 2 series which was capable of higher data rates and was more secure against disabling efforts.

2001 August 6---07:28 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 402B/IUS . Titan 402B 4B-31 / IUS USA 159 Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Apogee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 2.90 deg. Period: 1,435.76 min. Launch postponed from February, then delayed from July 27. USA 159 was a US Air Force Defense Support Program infrared missile early warning satellite was placed by the Titan core into a 328 x 663 km x 28.7 deg parking orbit. The Boeing IUS-16 upper stage then fired its first solid motor to enter geostationary transfer orbit. The second IUS solid motor fired at around 14:00 GMT placing DSP Flight 21 in near-geosynchronous orbit. Still in service as of March 2007.

2001 October 5---21:21 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 404B 4B-34 USA 161 Mass: 16,650 kg (36,700 lb). Spacecraft: Improved Crystal. Agency: National Reconnaissance Office (U.S.). Perigee: 150 km (90 mi). Apogee: 1,050 km (650 mi). Inclination: 97.90 deg. Launch delayed from September 25, October1. National Reconnaissance Office payload that was placed into a sun-synchronous orbit. It was speculated that the payload was an Improved Crystal imaging satellite. That would imply an operational orbit of 150 x 1050 km x 97.9 deg orbit. The satellite belonged to the National Reconnaissance Office's fleet of Earth Imaging System (EIS) satellites. A BBC website reported a resolution of 10 cm in the images. (A commonly used name for the EIS satellites was Advanced Keyhole.) The first member of the EIS fleet was USA 144 (1999-028A), launched in May 1999.

2002 January 16---00:30 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-38/TC-19 USA 164 Mass: 4,550 kg (10,030 lb). Spacecraft: Milstar. Agency: U.S. Air Force (U.S.). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 1.46 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Military Communications satellite. Launch delayed from December 2001. The Titan core stage shut down 9 min after launch on a suborbital trajectory, and separated from the upper stage, Centaur TC-19. TC-19 made three burns to parking orbit, geostationary transfer orbit, and finally geostationary orbit. It then released Milstar Flt-5. Milstar provided secure communications in the EHF, SHF and UHF bands and would be stationed over European longitudes. As of 2007 Feb 16 located at 29.98E drifting at 0.014W degrees per day.

2002 June 24---18:23 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-14 / M68B-72 + M68B-92 + M68B-71 NOAA 17 Mass: 1,475 kg (3,251 lb). Spacecraft: Tiros N. Agency: NOAA. Perigee: 807 km (501 mi). Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Inclination: 98.80 deg. Launch delayed from August 2001. The refurbished Titan 2 missile put the NOAA M satellite on a suborbital trajectory of about -2500 x 820 km x 98 deg. at 1829 UTC. At 1837 UTC the NOAA M propulsion module fired its ATK/Thiokol Star 37XFP solid motor for the orbit insertion burn, followed by a hydrazine trim burn to put the satellite in an 807 x 822 km x 98.8 deg operational orbit. NOAA M became NOAA 17 on entering service with the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as the primary morning weather satellite, supplementing the NOAA 16 afternoon satellite. Built by Lockheed Martin, NOAA M carried weather imagers and microwave and infrared sounders, as well as a SARSAT search-and-rescue package. It had an on-orbit mass of 1475 kg.

2003 January 6---14:19 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-4 / M68B-105 / 66-4316 Coriolis Mass: 828 kg (1,825 lb). Spacecraft: Coriolis. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 742 km (461 mi). Apogee: 936 km (582 mi). Inclination: 98.74 deg. Period: 101.55 min. Coriolis was an Air Force Space Test Program three-year meteorological science mission to demonstrate the viability of using polarimetry to measure ocean surface wind speed and direction from space, and to demonstrate predictions of geomagnetic disturbances through continuous observation of Coronal Mass Ejections. Launch delayed from August 22, November 15, December 15, 16, 17 and 18, 2002 and January 5, 2003.

2003 April 8---13:43 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-35/TC-23 USA 169 Mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Spacecraft: Milstar. Agency: USAF. Perigee: 35,762 km (22,221 mi). Apogee: 35,811 km (22,251 mi). Inclination: 0.91 deg. Period: 1,436.13 min. Delayed from November 4, 2002, and January 21, February 2 and 4, March 5, 8 and 21, and April 6, 2003. As of 2007 Feb 4 located at 89.84W drifting at 0.014W degrees per day.

2003 September 9---04:29 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-36/TC-20 USA 171 Mass: 5,200 kg (11,400 lb). Spacecraft: Advanced Orion. Agency: National Reconnaissance Office. American signals intelligence satellite placed into geostationary orbit. It was believed the payload was a successor to the USA-110 and USA-139 satellites launched in May 1995 and May 1998, referred to as 'Advanced ORION' by those not in the know. They were thought to be successors to the RHYOLITE missions of the 1970s. The satellite was originally to have launched April 28, 2002. Launch delayed seven times.

2003 October 18---16:17 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Model: Titan 2G . Titan II SLV 23G-9 / M68B-107 / 66-4318/Star 37XFP USA 172 Mass: 1,154 kg (2,544 lb). Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D-3. Perigee: 843 km (523 mi). Apogee: 853 km (530 mi). Inclination: 98.90 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Final Titan 2 launch, LV dubbed "Cindy Marie". Originally to have launched January 2001. Launch postponed 12 times due to spacecraft and launch vehicle problems.

2004 February 14---18:50 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 402B/IUS . Titan 402B 4B-39 / IUS USA 176 Mass: 2,380 kg (5,240 lb). Spacecraft: DSP. Agency: National Security Agency. Perigee: 35,852 km (22,277 mi). Apogee: 36,105 km (22,434 mi). Inclination: 0.68 deg. Period: 1,445.94 min. DSP-1 Block 14 ballistic missile launch detection satellite. Last flight of the IUS upper stage. Launch delayed from November 4, 2003, and January 17, 2003. Planned IMEX piggyback payload cancelled. Still in service as of March 2007, expected to remain operational until 2017-2022. As of 2004 Feb 15 located at 96.66W drifting at 2.464W degrees per day.

2005 April 30---00:50 GMT---Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Model: Titan 403B . Titan 405B 4B-30 USA 182 Mass: 14,500 kg (31,900 lb). Spacecraft: Lacrosse. Agency: National Reconnaissance Office. Perigee: 481 km (298 mi). Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Inclination: 57.00 deg. Last East Coast Titan launch. Delayed from December 18, 2001; July 3, 2002; October 2004; February 20, April 6, 10 and 11, 2005. Amateur observors believed this to be the fifth in the Lacrosse/Onyx radar spy satellite series built by Lockheed Martin.

2005 October 19---18:05 GMT---Vandenberg SLC4E. Titan 404B 4B-26 USA 186 Mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Spacecraft: Improved Crystal. Agency: National Reconnaissance Office (U.S.). Perigee: 264 km (164 mi). Apogee: 1,050 km (650 mi). Inclination: 97.90 deg. Delayed from 2003; February 2004; and June 30, July 10, September 9, 2005. Last launch of the Titan series put a classified National Reconnaisance Office satellite into polar orbit. Its orbital parameters, as determined by amateur observors, suggested it was an Improved Crystal electronic imaging reconnaissace satellite, replacing USA 129, which was launched in 1996.

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